J.S. Pughe, Peace (1905). This picture portrays rugged individualism and how individuals were to modeled on building a successful democracy.
Frontier Thesis + Bootstrap Myth
Fredrick Jackson Turner coined the famous term "Frontier Thesis". Through this myth, it called upon the endless resources, trade, and alliances waiting to be redeemed by mankind. Tuner believed that by going out into the plain built this rugged individualism that called for problematic reasoning and resourcefulness, which were all the ingredients needed to have a successful democracy. This American experience fostered a democracy that was a very romanticized version of history.
J. B. Starkweather "Gam Saam Meets El Dorado". This picture protrays Asian immigrants working away at the mines back in the 19th century.
Foreign Miners Tax
This tax imposed $20 monthly fee on all non-American miners. As an attempt to repeal foreigners from taking their gold, Americans were eager to kick out the people that were already living there for their selfish gains. Many Chinese and Latino miners suffered heavily from this tax and were forced to move elsewhere.
The David Hilton Family, Nebraska-1880s. Photo by Soloman Butcher. This picture shows a family of homesteaders being photographed along with their horses and wagons.
Consequences of Manifest Destiny led to the Homestead Act of 1862, where Westerners were encouraged to migrate westward through acquiring 160 acres of land. Many black and women citizens took advantage of this law and migrated west in search of economic opportunities. Homesteaders didn't care how they acquired the land, even if it meant taking over the indigenous people's land who lived there for centuries before.
Twentieth-Century depiction of Sand Creek Massacre—Robert Lindneux. This cartoon protrays the battle between the Cheyenne and the Arapaho Indian tribe against the United States troops in Pikes Peak.
Indian Massacres and Removal Through Forceful Means
In 1864, gold was discovered in Pikes Peak, an area occupied by the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indian tribe. When the tribe refused to relocate, the government broke the Treaty of Laramie and committed mass massacre. The government later accepted responsibility for the massacre but still forced the tribes to relocate. The government recognized their wrongdoing but did not care as long as they obtained the raw materials they desperately sought. They would repeat the same course of action to Indians when any sort of valuable resource was discovered. In the Battle of Little Bighorn, even though the Sioux won the battle, the government decided to forcibly take over the mines by imposing violent means. America would dehumanize others repeatedly throughout history when it was advantageous.
A 1911 ad offering "allotted Indian land" for sale. Wikimedia Commons Adapted from United States Department of the Interior by Braden208 CC BY-SA 3.0. This is a poster made by the government advertising United States citizens to buy Indian land.
Government Imposing Laws to acquire Indian Land
As natives lost greater and greater portions of their land, their traditions of communal living were undone by legislation such as the Dawes Act of 1887. This act subdivided Native American tribal landholdings into allotments for Native American heads of families and individuals. They lost parts of their land in exchange for American citizenship and its proclaimed 'rights'. This act was meant to help integrate Indians into white civilization and offer them the same benefits and protection as a citizen, however they still faced violence as over 60 of them were murdered in 1920 due to discovery of oil under their homes. It was never about bringing civilization to Indian, but getting access to land and those raw materials.
Cartoon - “Ten Thousand Miles from Tip to Tip”. This cartoon symbolize America as the eagle having its grasp on global territories such as Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
U.S. Imperialism in the late 19th century
After fulfilling manifest destiny, America shifted their goal to expand their power overseas. In the late 19th century, U.S. had their eyes set on colonizing Puerto Rico and Philippines for military and economic gains. These ambitions will eventually lead to the Spanish-American war and the Philippines-American War. Those being colonized resisted, similarly to how Indians resisted. History repeats itself as America carried their mindset over to future endeavors.