The Protestant Reformation By: Luis and Rusty

The Causes

What was the Protestant Reformation?

  • The Protestant Reformation was a series of events that occurred during the 16th Century in the Christian Church. As the Roman Catholic Church was filled with corruption, several brave men stepped up to make a change.
  • It started in 1517, when Martin Luther nailed the Ninety-ive Theses on the door of Wittenberg. This event changed the course of history as it impacted German society and the world.
  • King Henry VIII divorce with his wife also caused a change as the English separated from the Catholic Church.

The Roman Catholic Church

  • The Roman Catholic Church was filled with corruption as it strayed its' people from the teachings of the Bible. The selling of indulgences was the most controversial practice during the Reformation.
  • Indulgences were papal pardons for the reduction of the time a soul spent in purgatory.
  • With the amount of money the Catholic Church received, the Church was able to fund the construction of St. Peter’s Basillica in Rome.

The Printing Press

  • The Protestant Reformation was greatly influenced by the printing press as it able to influenced the Reformation as it allowed for Reformation ideas to spread more rapidly.
  • Johann Gutenberg, the inventor of the printing press, was also able to make a great impact on literacy.
  • Printing materials also became affordable and accessible to the people.

The Course

Important Men of the Reformation

Martin Luther

  • Martin Luther was a German monk nailed the Ninety-Five Theses which sparked the Reformation with his beliefs that the Roman Catholic Church was misleading the people.
  • This caused a stir as Luther was ordered at the Diet of Worms: an assembly of the Roman Empire where Luther had to testify.
  • Luther believed that the only way to earn salvation is through the blood of Jesus sacrifice on the cross. Salvation is not earned through good works which would lead to hell.
  • Luther also translate the Bible from Latin into German so that the common people would be able to read from it.

Ulrich Zwingli

Zwingli was a Swiss Protestant who believed the Bible was the High Authority. He called for Church reforms and spoke out against the Church's corruption and abuse. He also lead Zurich to its break with Rome.

John Knox

Knox was a Scottish minister and Founder of the Presbyterian Church, who followed Calvin's ideas of God and the Bible. He also used democratic reforms within the government of Scotland.

John Calvin

  • Calvin was a protestant who believed and taught that the Bible was supreme and also taught that through faith came salvation.
  • He was also a strong believer in predestination, which means that God knows the outcome of every individual's life whether they would go to heaven or hell.
  • He wrote the Institutes of the Christian Religion, which was a seminal work of Protestant systematic theology.
  • He also encouraged iconoclasm, which was the removal of religious images as many paintings were full of idolatry and images of God.

The Five Solas: the five latin phrases that came from the Protestant Reformation made to summarize the Reformers' basic theological principles against the teachings of the Catholic Church. "Sola" means alone in Latin.

  1. Sola Fide, by faith alone.
  2. Sola Scriptura, by Scripture alone.
  3. Solus Christus, through Christ alone.
  4. Sola Gratia, by grace alone.
  5. Soli Deo Gloria, glory to God alone.

Other Important Men

William Tyndale

  • Tyndale was an English scholar who became a leading figure in Protestant reform in the years leading up to his execution.
  • The first person to translate the Bible into English.

John Wycliffe

Wycliffe was an English Protestant theologian and an early reformer in the 1300's. He was known best for his role in translating the Bible into the common language.

John Huss

Huss outlined his case for reform of the Church. He was tried by the Council of Constance and burned at the stake as a heretic. His followers, known as Hussites, launched a civil war against the Holy Roman Empire

Ignatius de Loyola

Loyola was a Spanish priest and theologian, who founded the religious order called the Society of Jesus and became its first Superior General.

Max Weber

Weber was one of the three main "fathers of sociology", contributed to our understanding of the sociological perspective, to the nature of social change, and to the nature of social inequality. This helped to understand the nature of society.

Sigmund Freud

Freud emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind, and a primary assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than the people suspect.

The Holy Roman Empire established the revival of the Frankish Empire to whom Charlemagne was crowned as the new Emperor due to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. A new style of art called Baroque was created two centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire. It denoted a style of European architecture, music, and art that followed mannerism and is characterized by detail.

The Artists

Lucas Cranach the Elder: a German Renaissance painter and print maker in woodcut and engraving. He is known for his portraits during the Reformation, who became a close friend of Luther. His painting: Allegory of Law and Grace

Allegory of Law and Grace

Quinten Massys: Flemish artist, the first important painter of the Antwerp school. His painting: The Money Changer and his Wife

The Money Changer and his Wife

El Greco: He enriched his style of elements of mannerism and of the Venetian Renaissance during his time in Italy. He produced his best known paintings in Toledo. His painting: The Burial of Count Orgaz

The Burial of Count Orgaz

Rembrandt: a 17th century painter and etcher whose work came to dominate the Dutch Golden Age. His paintings are filled with illustrations of biblical scenes and self-portraits as well as the use of shadow and light. His painting: The Raising of the Cross

The Raising of the Cross

Albrecht Durer: regarded as the greatest German Renaissance artist. His work includes alterpieces, portraits, engravings, and woodcuts. His painting: The Four Apostles

The Four Apostles

Peter Paul Rubens: a Flemish Baroque painter who emphasized on movement, color, and sensuality. His painting: The Desent from the Cross

The Desent from the Cross

Bernini: Italian artist who was the greatest sculptor of the 17th century and an outstanding architect as well. He created the Baroque style of sculpture. His sculpture: The Statue of David

The Statue of David

Johann Bach: the greatest composer of all time, he was know for his outstanding music on the organ and technician.

George Handel: composed operas, oratorios, and instrumentals. His 1741 work, 'Messiah,' is among the most famous oratorios in history.

The Consequences

Political Consequences

  • The Counter Reformation was the Catholic's response to the Protestant Reformation. Christians began to criticize the Catholic church as they said that the worship of Mary, the selling of indulgences, the insistence that rituals and sacraments were necessary for salvation were wrong. The Church made their own efforts in silencing and discrediting Protestant disagreements.
  • The Council of Trent was one of the Roman Catholic Church's most important ecumenical councils. It was created by the cause of the Protestant Reformation. It has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.
  • The Edict of Nantes granted Huguenots (French Protestants) religious liberty in the nation and it brought an end to the violent Wars of Religion. It was the first decrees that granted religious rights to the minority of French Protestants.

Social Consequences

  • There was a destruction of art (iconoclasm).
  • Many people revolted against God's word due to misinterpretation. They also revolted because they believed the nobility was not equal to them as regular people.
  • An elimination in women for reading and writing.
  • Ministers could also divorce and marry.

Religious Consequences

  • Many interpretations of the Bible formed many denominations who split from the Roman Church called Protestant churches. The Protestant churches are Baptists, Purists Methodists, Quakers, Anglicans, and Presbyterians.
  • The Counter Reformation was created, which the Pope created new religious orders and a list of banned books.
  • The Peace of Augsburg was the first permanent legal basis for the coexistence of Lutheranism and Catholicism in German.
  • Jesuits are members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order of religious men founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola. They were the principal agent of the Protestant Reformation and converted many people to Catholicism.

Economic Consequences

  • King Henry VIII was selling land to the English Class.
  • There were less donations due to the low amount of indulgences being purchased.
  • New ideas were being discovered in the scientific reformation outside of biblical concepts.

October 31, 2017 marks the 500th Anniversary of Martin Luther's posting of the Ninety-Five Theses. His great accomplishments are acknowledged as Luther changed the course of history as it impacted German society and the world. Luther's view of the Bible created many denominations such as Lutheran, Baptists, and Presbyterian and without his courageous acts, there would not have been a separation from the Roman Catholic Church.

Credits:

Created with images by falco - "luther sculpture figure" • Pixaline - "these door castle church lutherstadt" • TobiasD - "palma cathedral cathedral cathedral of santa maria" • dalbera - "Gutenberg par David d'Angers (Angers)" • DocViper - "dresden frauenkirche martin luther" • Stifts- och landsbiblioteket i Skara - "Vlric Zuingle" • kyz - "Osama bin Knox" • Biblioteca Rector Machado y Nuñez - ""Juan Calvino"." • Orchids love rainwater - "Stain glass Tyndale window Hertford College" • Stifts- och landsbiblioteket i Skara - "I Wikliff" • Jeff Pioquinto, SJ - "St. Ignatius of Loyola" • Arturo Espinosa - "Max Weber for PIFAL" • janeb13 - "sigmund freud portrait 1926 founder of psychoanalysis" • Cea. - "[ R ] Marinus van Reymerswaele - The Banker and his Wife (1554)" • Cea. - "[ B ] Aurelio Blasco - After The Burial of the Count of Orgaz, by El Greco (ca 1877)" • Joaquín Martínez - "Rubens Descent From The Cross" • andreas160578 - "church interior inside" • MichaelGaida - "castle baroque historically" • Gellinger - "church altar architecture" • schienertown - "church symbol cross"

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