What was the Protestant Reformation?
- The Protestant Reformation was a series of events that occurred during the 16th Century in the Christian Church. As the Roman Catholic Church was filled with corruption, several brave men stepped up to make a change.
- It started in 1517, when Martin Luther nailed the Ninety-ive Theses on the door of Wittenberg. This event changed the course of history as it impacted German society and the world.
- King Henry VIII divorce with his wife also caused a change as the English separated from the Catholic Church.
The Roman Catholic Church
- The Roman Catholic Church was filled with corruption as it strayed its' people from the teachings of the Bible. The selling of indulgences was the most controversial practice during the Reformation.
- Indulgences were papal pardons for the reduction of the time a soul spent in purgatory.
- With the amount of money the Catholic Church received, the Church was able to fund the construction of St. Peter’s Basillica in Rome.
The Printing Press
- The Protestant Reformation was greatly influenced by the printing press as it able to influenced the Reformation as it allowed for Reformation ideas to spread more rapidly.
- Johann Gutenberg, the inventor of the printing press, was also able to make a great impact on literacy.
- Printing materials also became affordable and accessible to the people.
- Martin Luther was a German monk nailed the Ninety-Five Theses which sparked the Reformation with his beliefs that the Roman Catholic Church was misleading the people.
- This caused a stir as Luther was ordered at the Diet of Worms: an assembly of the Roman Empire where Luther had to testify.
- Luther believed that the only way to earn salvation is through the blood of Jesus sacrifice on the cross. Salvation is not earned through good works which would lead to hell.
- Luther also translate the Bible from Latin into German so that the common people would be able to read from it.
Zwingli was a Swiss Protestant who believed the Bible was the High Authority. He called for Church reforms and spoke out against the Church's corruption and abuse. He also lead Zurich to its break with Rome.
Knox was a Scottish minister and Founder of the Presbyterian Church, who followed Calvin's ideas of God and the Bible. He also used democratic reforms within the government of Scotland.
- Calvin was a protestant who believed and taught that the Bible was supreme and also taught that through faith came salvation.
- He was also a strong believer in predestination, which means that God knows the outcome of every individual's life whether they would go to heaven or hell.
- He wrote the Institutes of the Christian Religion, which was a seminal work of Protestant systematic theology.
- He also encouraged iconoclasm, which was the removal of religious images as many paintings were full of idolatry and images of God.
- Tyndale was an English scholar who became a leading figure in Protestant reform in the years leading up to his execution.
- The first person to translate the Bible into English.
Wycliffe was an English Protestant theologian and an early reformer in the 1300's. He was known best for his role in translating the Bible into the common language.
Huss outlined his case for reform of the Church. He was tried by the Council of Constance and burned at the stake as a heretic. His followers, known as Hussites, launched a civil war against the Holy Roman Empire
Ignatius de Loyola
Loyola was a Spanish priest and theologian, who founded the religious order called the Society of Jesus and became its first Superior General.
Weber was one of the three main "fathers of sociology", contributed to our understanding of the sociological perspective, to the nature of social change, and to the nature of social inequality. This helped to understand the nature of society.
Freud emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind, and a primary assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than the people suspect.
- The Counter Reformation was the Catholic's response to the Protestant Reformation. Christians began to criticize the Catholic church as they said that the worship of Mary, the selling of indulgences, the insistence that rituals and sacraments were necessary for salvation were wrong. The Church made their own efforts in silencing and discrediting Protestant disagreements.
- The Council of Trent was one of the Roman Catholic Church's most important ecumenical councils. It was created by the cause of the Protestant Reformation. It has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.
- The Edict of Nantes granted Huguenots (French Protestants) religious liberty in the nation and it brought an end to the violent Wars of Religion. It was the first decrees that granted religious rights to the minority of French Protestants.
- There was a destruction of art (iconoclasm).
- Many people revolted against God's word due to misinterpretation. They also revolted because they believed the nobility was not equal to them as regular people.
- An elimination in women for reading and writing.
- Ministers could also divorce and marry.
- Many interpretations of the Bible formed many denominations who split from the Roman Church called Protestant churches. The Protestant churches are Baptists, Purists Methodists, Quakers, Anglicans, and Presbyterians.
- The Counter Reformation was created, which the Pope created new religious orders and a list of banned books.
- The Peace of Augsburg was the first permanent legal basis for the coexistence of Lutheranism and Catholicism in German.
- Jesuits are members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order of religious men founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola. They were the principal agent of the Protestant Reformation and converted many people to Catholicism.
- King Henry VIII was selling land to the English Class.
- There were less donations due to the low amount of indulgences being purchased.
- New ideas were being discovered in the scientific reformation outside of biblical concepts.