Ad Hominem: appealing to feelings or prejudices rather than intellect Example- “All murderers are criminals, but a thief isn’t a murderer, and so can’t be a criminal.” “Well, you’re a thief and a criminal, so there goes your argument.”
Allusion: a brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary or political significance. It does not describe in detail the person or thing to which it refers. Example- “Don’t act like a Romeo in front of her.” – “Romeo” is a reference to Shakespeare’s Romeo, a passionate lover of Juliet, in “Romeo and Juliet”.
Analogy: a comparison in which an idea or a thing is compared to another thing that is quite different from it. Example- Life is like a race. The one who keeps running wins the race and the one who stops to catch a breath loses.
Antithesis: opposition, or contrast of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction. Example- "We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools." - Martin Luther King, Jr. Pronunciation- (Ant-I-thee-sis)
Aphorism: a pithy observation that contains a general truth. Example- “if it ain't broke, don't fix it.” Pronunciation- a-four-ism
Ignorance Argument: Informal logic. Example- To this very day (at the time of this writing), science has been unable to create life from non-life; therefore, life must be a result of divine intervention.