The Industrial Revolution

Thomas Malthus: Essay on the Principle of Population

Thomas Malthus

Fun Facts:

  • Born: 13 February 1766 in Westcott, Surrey, England
  • Malthus entered Jesus College, Cambridge in 1784
  • Argued that population multiplies geometrically and food arithmetically
  • 1805 Malthus became Professor of History and Political Economy at the East India Company College in Hertfordshire.
  • A founding member of the Political Economy Club in 1821
  • Died 29 December 1834 in Bath, Somerset, England

Essay on the principle of population

  • Originally published anomalously in 1798
  • In the essay Malthus makes the case that population increases Geometrically, while food production increases arithmetically. This would lead to starvation unless population was controlled.
  • While Malthus makes a valid point he did not take into account the advances in agriculture technology.
  • Malthus would write and publish a total of 6 revisions of the essay.
  • the essay out lined Malthus's iron law of wages witch states that as population and the work force increase wages would decrease. so a rising population would lead to poverty.
  • Malthus proposed that there were to different types of checks, positive checks and preventative checks.
  • Positive checks: hunger, disease, and war.
  • Preventative checks: abortion, birth control, prostitution, and celibacy
  • Engels and Marx did not agree with Malthus.

Friedrich Engels: Condition of the working class in England in 1844

He has a nice Beard!

Fun Facts:

  • Born on 28 November 1820 in Prussia
  • Dropped out of high school at 17
  • Joined the Prussian army as part of the Household Artillery
  • Was against the institution of marrige
  • He was close friends with Karl Marx
  • Joined the secret revolutionary society called the League of the Just
  • Notible works: The Condition of the Working Class in England, Anti-Dühring, Socialism: Utopian and Scientific, and The German Ideology
The original cover of the pamphlet

Condition of the working class in England in 1844

  • It was a study of the industrial working class in industrial England.
  • Originally written in German with the title Die Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England
  • In the book he argues that industrialization made workers worse off
  • He argues his point with example like higher mortality rate, lower incomes, terrible living conditions, and etc.
  • Condition of the working class is considered by many historians to be a realistic account and interpretation of conditions during the industrial revolution.

Ecological changes and effects

  • Fossil fuels replaced wind, water and wood.
  • Increased levels of air pollution, water pollution and deforestation.
  • The burning of fossil fuels led to smog in populated, industry heavy cities like London. In 1873, 700 people were killed in London after experiencing a week of smog.
  • Wood was in great demand for use in industries, so trees were cut down quickly and without being replaced. This also increased carbon levels
  • lack of trees damaged the environment by uprooting native animal populations, degrading habitats, and disrupting the carbon cycle

Agricultural changes and effects

  • Agricultural irrigation led to salinization and water resource depletion in urban areas.
  • Crop rotation led to better quality produce and higher yields to feed the growing population.
  • Selective breeding led to higher quality meat and wool.
  • Overall improvements were made in the quality of food

Industrial changes and effects

  • Machinery replaced some human labor
  • James Watt - Steam Engine
  • George Stephenson - Railroad
  • Alexander Graham Bell - Telephone
  • Thomas Edison - Lightbulb
  • Robert Fulton - Steamboat
  • James Hargreaves - Spinning Jenny
  • Industry - a group of profit making companies
  • Example - the banking industry
  • Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Effects on the Family

  • In lower/ middle class families, everyone of age was expected to work, even women and children.
  • The Industrial Revolution led to a situation in which women became more subjugated to men and had less contact with the public sphere.
  • Before the Industrial Revolution men, women, and both genders of children all had equal input in working because most work was done at home. After the Industrial Revolution, men worked outside of home while women and children worked inside the home. This caused men to be breadwinners while women and children were paid less or not at all.

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