Tsunami By:EllyIn

WHAT ARE TSUNAMI? A tsunami is series of ocean waves that sends surges of water, sometimes reaching heights over 100 feet (30.5 meters), onto land. These walls of water can cause widespread destruction when they crash ashore.

WHAT CAUSES TSUNAMI? These awe-inspiring waves are typically cause by large, undersea earthquakes and tectonic plate boundaries. When the ocean floor at a plate boundary rises or falls suddenly, it displaces the water above it and launches the rolling wave that will become a tsunami. Most tsunamis about 80 percent happen within the pacific ocean's ring of fire," a geologically active area where tectonic shifts make volcanoes and earthquakes common.

Undersea earthquakes, which typically occur at boundaries between Earth's tectonic plates, cause the water above to be moved up or down.
Tsunami in Japan occurred in 2004, wave reaching up to 100 feet (30.5 m)

HOW FAST CAN TSUNAMI RACE ACROSS? Tsunamis race across the sea at up to 500 miles(805 kilometres) an hour about as fast as jet airplane. At the pace, they can cross the entire expanse of the pacific ocean in less than a day. And their long wavelengths mean they lose very little energy along the way.

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN IT HITS LAND? A tsunami's gutter, the low point beneath the wave's crest, often reaches shore first. When it does, it produces a vacuum effect that sucks the coastal water seaward and reveals harbor and sea floors. This retreating of sea water is an important warning sign of a tsunami, because the wave's crest and it's enormous volume of water usually hit shore five minutes or so later. This occurrence can save many lives.

A tsunami is usually composed of a series of waves called a wave train, so it's devastating force may be compounded as successive waves reach shore. People experiencing a tsunami should remember that the danger may not have passed with the first wave and should expect official word that it is safe to return to important locations.

Where tsunami mostly occurs

Scientists estimate that almost three quarter of the world tsunami's occur in the PACIFIC OCEAN, where the subduction zones are so common (Aleutian islands, Philippines, Indonesia, Alaska,Chile, and Japan.).

WHY TSUNAMI IS DANGEROUS Tsunami's occur most often in the Pacific Ocean and Indonesia, because of the active pacific Rim earthquake zone, Tsunamis cause water level and currents to rise rapidly, and dangerous waves often follow the first tsunami wave, trapping people to return, thinking the tsunami is over.

This is a picture of the effects of tsunami before and after tsunami hits Indonesia (2004)

THE EFFECTS OF TSUNAMI When tsunami waves become extremely large in height, they savagely attack coastlines, causing devastating property damage and loss of life. A small wave only 30 centimetres high in the deep ocean may grow into a monster wave 30 metre high as it sweeps over the shore. The effects can be further magnified where a bay, harbour, or lagoon funnels the waves as they move inland. Large tsunamis have been known to rise up to 100feet.

The degree of damage was enormous through out all of MIYAKO Japan. In 2011 tsunami caused many deaths and it caused most of the damage and the loss of hundreds life. It simply swept towns and villages away and left them as soggy piles of rubble.

WAY OF SURVIVING A TSUNAMI One thing you could do to survive is to head for the high ground and stay there. Going to high ground and staying there saved lives during the 1960 chilean tsunami, not only in Chile but also in Onagawa, Japan. Damaging waves in Onagawa, some of which carried pounding rams of floating wood, reached heights of 14feet. Some waves kept arriving for several hours. Other place in Japan, the tsunami killed 138 people, but in Onagawa no one died, probably because many people went to high ground. Some people arrived by 4:45am, as the first large wave entered town. They had been alerted by fireman Kimura Kunio. Mr. Kimura, on early morning had noticed the unusual motion of the water.

At 4:45am from the warning of Mr.Kimura, people in Onagawa evacuated to higher ground to stay safe and as you can see, the window is still intact so it is not as bad right now as it will get.
At 4:50am just in 5 minutes the wave has already took over where the train station is, and people have already evacuated to the higher ground from the warning from Mr. Kimura, have saved lots of people from the tsunami in Onagawa Japan in 1960. Also you can see the debris in swirling water, and the window has been pushed in by the pressure of the tsunami.

TSUNAMI'S 101 Tsunami's are giant, powerful waves most often caused by earthquakes beneath the ocean floor. Their amazing power can destroy entire communities, than drag the waste out to sea. Some tsunamis do not appear on shore as massive breaking waves, but instead resemble a quickly surging tide that bombards coastal areas. Best defense against any tsunami is early warning that warns people to evacuate to seek higher ground as quick as possible. The pacific Tsunami warning system, a coalition of 26 nations headquartered in Hawaii, maintains a web of unstable equipment and water level gauges to identify tsunami's at sea. Similar systems are made to protect coastal areas worldwide.

PTWC

Source: http://www.National Geographic.com http://www.pubs.usgs.governement

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Created with images by NeuPaddy - "wave atlantic pacific"

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