Animal Behavior

Innate Behavior (Inherited Behavior)

  • Chosen by Natural Selection
  • No complex brain is needed for innate behaviors
  • Hormonal Balance and Nervous System Affect Organism's Sensitivity to Stimuli
  • Complex Interactions Between Genes and the Environment

INstinct

  • suckling of a newborn mammal
  • spider spinning a web

Migration

  • seasonal movement
  • movement of species from one environment to another in response to temperature, food

Phototaxis

  • Movement in response to light
  • Isopods- negative phototaxis- move away from the light
  • Moths- positive phototaxis- move toward the light

Circadian Rhythm

  • 24 hour sleep-wake patterns
  • Nocturnal/Diurnal
  • Regulate when animals are hungry, excrete wastes

Hibernation

  • Period of inactivity to survive winter
  • body temp., oxygen consumption
  • breathing rates, energy usage decline
  • store foods as fat (insulation)

Estivation

  • decreased metabolism of animals during periods of intense heat/drought
  • Example- frogs, other amphibians burying themselves in the mud to remain moist and cool

Learned Behavior

  • more complex organisms involved
  • must have a more complex brain and/or nervous sytem

Habituation

  • organisms is repeatedly exposed to a stimulus without given a punishment or reward
  • organism becomes used to the stimulus and continues to seek out the stimulus
  • Example: biting nails, baby sleeping through loud noises, wild animals becoming accustomed to humans

Trial and Error

  • organisms receives a reward for a proper response
  • organism my have to perform task many times in order to receive the reward
  • random

Imprinting

  • organism forms an irreversible social attachment to another organism, usually at birth;
  • used to identify proper mates
  • described by Konrad Lorenz (goslings imprinting)

Classical Conditioning

  • Ivan Pavlov's dog experiment
  • learning is by association with a repeated stimulus
  • food=salivation; bell=food; bell=salivation

Social Behavior

  • organisms can create with pheromones
  • behavior is seen in a wide range of animals such as ants, bees, wasps, termites, lions, zebras, baboons
  • Examples: bees- waggle dance to describe food location for members of the hive; Altruistic behavior- animals sacrificing themselves for the benefit of the entire colony (ants)

Courtship

  • members of one sex (usually males) advertise fitness as a mate
  • Examples: use of sounds (songs), displays, dances, chemicals (pheromones), and other ritualistic behaviors

Territorality

  • prevents others from using limited resources (food, water, nesting spaces, shelter, potential mates)
  • leaving scents to mark territory
Created By
Allyson Hunter
Appreciate

Credits:

Created with images by gailhampshire - "Eristalis nemorum." • USFWS Mountain Prairie - "Love is in the Air" • klynslis - "garden spider 1" • Patrick McConahay - "I thought this was one-way." • Frank Boston - "Roll E Pole E" • SHAWSHANK61 - "raccoon varmint mammal" • jitze - "Hunting for a salmon snack" • dennisflarsen - "samson dog newfoundland" • Gamma Man - "Drool" • AvinaCeleste - "peacock peafowl bird"

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