Introduction to the Book of Zachariah: Zachariah means "Yahweh has remembered"
It is believed that it was written by more than one person and it is placed historically between 520 BCE and 518 BCE with the last chapter 14 written closer to the 5th Century BCE.
- The book of Zachariah can be divided into two separate books, the first series of chapters 1 - 8 can are usually considered 1 Zachariah but it's not broken down like that. The second part 2 Zachariah is considered to be from chapters 9 through 14.
- The Ideological Criticism of this book, I believe, is that the first chapters of the vision are written to remind Israel that God is with them and that a victorious outcome is going to happen. A priestly line of David type of government or establishment is going to happen. But then reality sets in and the second part of Zachariah re-focuses on the fact that maybe, not an earthly establishment created by man, but Yahweh will be the one to establish the "Day of the Lord", a peaceful era.
Zachariah chapter 1, reminds Israel to repent. "...Return to me, says the Lord of Host, and I will return to you, says the Lord of hosts,..." Zech 1:3. Yahweh reminds Israel that it's prophets have passed away "Bu my words and my statutes, which I commanded...did they not overtake your ancestors?" Zach 1:6
The first vision of Zechariah, A man on a red horse: "In the night I saw a man riding on a red horse...behind him were red, sorrel, and white horses." Zech 1:8, what do they represent? "They are those whom the Lord has sent to patrol the earth." Zech 1:10. But the most important part of this chapter, I believe, is the following" "...thus says the Lord, I have returned to Jerusalem with compassion:" Zech 1:15, "...my cities shall again overflow with prosperity; the Lord will again comfort Zion and again choose Jerusalem." Zech 1:17.
The second vision deals with horns and smiths: "...I looked up and saw four horns," Zech 1:18. "...these are the horns that have scattered Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem..." Zech 1:19.
The third vision is the man with a measuring line: "...saw a man with a measuring line in his hand." Zech 2:1 why was he going to do with that? ad he answered: "...To measure Jerusalem,..." Zech 2:2. "...I will be a wall of fire all around it, says the Lord, and I will be the glory within it." Zech 2:5
"...Flee from the land of the north, says the Lord;" Zech 2:6, "...Escape to the land of Zion,..."Zech 2:7, "Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion!...I will come and dwell in your midst,..."Zech 2:10. "Many nations shall join themselves to the Lord...and shall be my people; and I will dwell in your midst..."Zech 2:11
The fourth vision is of Joshua and Satan: "...he showed me the high priest Joshua standing before the Lord, and Satan..." Zech 3:1. "The Lord said to Satan, "The Lord rebuke you Satan!..." Zach 3:2 Joshua was standing "...with filthy clothes" Zach 3:3. The angel said to take off his dirty clothes and clothe him with festive clothes. Zach 3:4. Joshua has been made clean. Joshua was assured by the angel of the Lord that if he kept the requirements of the Lord, then he could rule the courts. The Lord promises that "...I will remove the guilt of this land in a single day,..." Zech 3:9.