Chapter 11 Sparkpage

The Cell Cycle

A series of events from the time a cell forms until its cytoplasm divides. This means that the cell cycle is the complete cycle of a cell's life. The cycle begins as the cell is born and ends when the cytoplasm divides. This cycle occurs for all cells. This cycle includes certain events that an organism pases through during its lifetime.


Interval between mitotic divisions when a cell grows. During this process a cell divides the number of cytoplasmic components, and replicates its DNA. Mitosis deals only with cell division. This interphase between mitotic divisions is primarily used to replicate its DNA. The three stages of interphase are G1 (metabolic activities) which deals with cell growth. S (DNA synthesis) which is when DNA is doubled/replicated and finally G2 (protein synthesis needed for cell division) which is the checkpoint stage of interphase.


First step of mitosis. This is when DNA is separated into two daughter cells with each carrying some of the DNA. In preparation for nuclear division the chromosomes begin to pack tightly. Then one of the two centrosomes moves to the opposite end of the cell, sister chromatids attach to these opposite centrosomes which allows for the DNA to be separated into the two daughter cells.


Second stage of mitosis. The chromosomes attach themselves to spindle fibers (which appear to be very condensed and a pair will coil themselves around each other). These chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell attached to spindle fibers that are at opposite end of the cells. After a "tug of war" for the chromosomes between the spindle fibers, daughter nuclei form as a result.


One of the final stage of mitosis. During this stage, due to the spindles action of pulling sister chromtids that were once in the middle of the cell begin to separate and are pulled to opposite sides of the cells. This means that the spindles play "tug of war" and due to there constant activity and pulling they are able to pull the sister chromtids to the opposite ends of the cell. This means that these sister chromtids are no longer attached to each other. When this stage happens it is common for the cell to lengthen because of the pulling and extending of the spindles and the attracting of the chromtids to each side of the cell.


Final stage of mitosis. During this stage, a nuclear envelope reforms around each chromosome set that was lost during the beginning stages of mitosis. During this stage, the spindle disappears. Nucleoli reappear and cytoplasm begin to divide. After all of this takes place mitosis and cell division is finally complete. The cycle of mitosis finally came full circle and the goal of cell divison is complete.


Telomeres are part of our cells that have a big impact on how we age. Many times compared to the plastic tips shoe laces because the plastic tips help keep the chromosomes from fraying and attaching to each other which would destroy genetic information. Telomere relates to aging because when the telomeres shorten it is the main reason to the breaking down of our cells due to age. As time goes on and we get older the telomeres are continually beging shortened. As these telomeres are shortened the cells begin to break down due to getting older and older.


Cancer is caused by possible mutations in the cell and/or when abnormal cells are continually divided. Cancer is a very serious disease that can spread through the body due to these abnormal cells. Cancer makes the organism feel very sick and tired. Cancer causes 15-20 percent of all human deaths and without a cure the disease can get worse over time.

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