Humanism is a psychological perspective that emphasizes the study of the whole person. Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving.
Major focus on the personal worth of the individual, the centrality of human values, and the creative, active nature of human beings. The approach is optimistic and focuses on noble human capacity to overcome hardship, pain and despair.
Carl Rogers is known as the father of client-centered therapy. Throughout his career he dedicated himself to humanistic psychology and is well known for his theory of personality development. He began developing his humanistic concept while working with abused children. Rogers attempted to change the world of psychotherapy when he boldly claimed that psychoanalytic, experimental, and behavioral therapists were preventing their clients from ever reaching self-realization and self-growth due to their authoritive analysis. He argued that therapists should allow patients to discover the solution for themselves.
Terms associated with Humanism. Self-worth- the sense of one's own value or worth as a person. Self-image- the idea one has of one's abilities, appearance, and personality. Self actualization-the realization or fulfillment of one's talents and potentialities, especially considered as a drive or need present in everyone.
Trait theory is an approach to studying human personality that identifies and measures the degree to which certain personality traits, recurring patterns of thought and behavior, such as anxiousness, shyness, openness to new things. The study involves a set number of personality traits and assigns the degree that a trait exists, which then determines the individual’s personality.
Major focuses- Trait approach is one of the most vital areas of study in psychology that helps identify a person’s personality. Traits can be defined as a stable characteristic that causes a person to depict a response to any situations in certain ways. Trait theories indicate that the traits are always constant regardless of the situations.
According to Gordon Allport, one English dictionary could provide you more than 4000 words describing or synonymous to a single personality trait. Because of this finding, he was able to categorize traits into three general levels. They include: Cardinal Traits, Central Traits, Secondary Traits.
Gordon Allport Unlike many other psychologists of his time, Allport placed a strong emphasis on conscious motivations and thoughts, and this led to a strong interest in the development of personality. Although Allport is noted as being influential in many areas of psychology, he is particularly well known for his trait theory.
Cattell’s and Eysenck’s theory have been the subject of considerable research, which has led some theorists to believe that Cattell focused on too many traits, while Eysenck focused on too few. From this a new trait theory emerged. The "Big Five" theory. The five-factor model of personality represents five core traits that interact to form human personality.
The Five-Factor Theory of Personality Terms.
Extraversion- How outgoing and social a person is. Agreeableness- how friendly, cooperative, and compassionate a person is. Conscientiousness- People that have a high Conscientiousness are reliable and prompt. They are organized. Neuroticism- Relates to ones emotional stability and degree of negative emotions. Openness- People who like to learn new things and experiences.
John Wayne was a wonderful actor but stated “I’m Duke Morrison and I never was and never will be a film personality like John Wayne." His real life personality trait relates closet to Neuroticism.