Hungarian Revolution of 1848 Created by: Claire Stone (B1)
Important People of the Revolution:
- Ferenc Deák: He was a leader of a popular reformist group. In the early 1830's he came to power in the Hungarian Parliament and reformers gained popularity under him. He was sincere about making reforms and proved it by freeing his serfs and voluntarily paying taxes. Throughout the Hungarian revolution he kept calm and opposed violence. Then, he became a minister of justice for the Batthyány Government and he tried to create a compromise to end the revolution. Unfortunately, his efforts for a compromise failed and he resigned as minister of justice. He still remained a member of parliament and defended the reforms he wanted to be made in Hungary.
- Lajos Kossuth: He was a lawyer, journalist, politician and governor- president of Hungary during the revolution. In 1837 he was arrested for demanding freedom of press, he remained imprisoned for four years. During his time in prison his health was damaged but he continued to gain political knowledge by reading books. By 1841 he had fully regained health and became a national icon. His political journal, Pesti Hírlap, became very well- known for exposing social injustice and calling for reforms. He was one of the main reasons for the revolution happening because he changed political thinking for many people and sent his requests for reforms to the Habsburg Courts.
- István Széchenyi: He had ideas that contrasted those of Kossuth. Széchenyi believed that Széchenyi believed that economic, political and social reforms should be made slowly, to prevent any violence from the Habsburg dynasty. On the other hand, Kossuth believed that reforms had to be made quickly to maintain a civil society.
Ten Points of Reformers
Ferenc Deák created these ten points, and convinced many liberals to agree on his points.
- Responsible ministries: all ministries and the government must be elected by the parliament
- Freedom of the Press
- Popular representation: abolition of feudal parliament
- Reincorporation of Transylvania which was previously located in Hungary
- Right of public meeting
- Absolute religious liberty: the abolition of the Catholic State Religion
- Equality before the law: the abolition of separate laws for the common people and nobility, the abolition of the legal privileges of nobility
- Equal taxation: abolition of the tax exemption of the aristocracy
- The abolition of the Aviticum: this was a law that allowed only the nobility to own agricultural lands
- The abolition of serfdom
The Revolution and Results
The revolution began on March 13th, 1848 in Vienna. Lajos Kossuth gave a speech about freedom and human rights which fired up protesters. The Chancellor (Klemens Wenzel von Metternich) who was a defender of old- order fled to London due to protests and his conservative system was abolished.
On March 15, 1848, revolutionaries marched around the city of Pest, beginning in the Pilvax coffee palace and then marching around the city. They sung the national song and read their demands. The crowd overtook the Landerer and Heckenast printing press to print their points and song. Another mass demonstration was held in front of the newly built National Museum.