The Greensboro Sit-ins By: Sophia Kvam

Background Information:

The Greensboro Four (what Franklin McCain, Joseph McNeil, Ezell Blair Jr., and David Richmond became known as) were all students from the Agricultural and Technical college in North Carolina. They shared a common goal, to end segregation. The A&T Four (another nickname) came together and discussed what they should do to help the matter. On Feb. 1, 1960, the Greensboro Four went to Woolworth and started the first sit-in of several, which would go down in history.
The goal of the event was to make it so Woolworth lost enough money that they eventually had no choice but to desegregate in order to stay in business. The A&T Four were going to sit at the 'whites only' section and would remain seated until they were served. They wanted to show people they respectfully disagreed with the law and would accept the punishment given for sitting at the 'whites only' section in Woolworth. They would do nothing to instigate the bystanders who would likely be saying/doing unpleasant things to them. This would make anyone who was harassing them look silly.
What encouraged the Greensboro Four to act were Mohandas Gandhi's non-violent protests, an early on CORE (Congress for Racial Equality in 1947) 'Freedom Ride,' and the murder of a young black boy(Emmett Till) who was accused of whistling at a women in a store.

Information about what kind of people were involved:

Born in Greensboro, North Carolina on January 3, 1941.

Franklin McCain:

McCain was raised in Washington D.C. Graduated from eastern High school. He returned to North Carolina to attend the Agricultural and Technical State University and in 1964, received his Bachelor of Science in chemistry and Biology. Later, he went back to college and and earned his Master of Arts degree.

Born in Wilmington North Carolina, March 25, 1942.

Joseph McNeil:

He was president of his Parishes Catholic Youth Council, graduated from Williston Senior High School, and soon after he and family moved to New York. He later received a full scholarship to Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University; however, McNeil found moving into the segregated south was a hard transition to make(one reason he took part in the sit-in). McNeil later joined the U.S. Air Force.

Born in Greensboro, N.C. October 18, 1941.

Ezell Blaire, Jr.:

Blair graduated from Dudley High School in Greensboro, North Carolina. and attended the Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University for Sociology. He was the most unsure one in the group about doing the sit-in and asked his parents for advice, they told him to trust what he felt was right.

Born on April 20, 1941 in Greensboro , North Carolina and Died Dec. 7, 1990 of lung cancer in Greensboro, NC.

David Richmond:

Graduated from Dudley High School, then went to Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, his majors were administering and accounting. Richmond was married while in college (over all married and divorced three times)and he left before he got his degree. He found a job working as a counselor-coordinator for the CETA program in Greensboro for a while, but never kept a job for too long. According to his friends, they were no match for his talents.

Obstacles: On the first day, the A&T Four were neglected service. They didn't give up their seats and continued to wait at Woolworth, several people heckled them (they'd try to ignore it by reading or studying) and when the police arrived they could not arrest them because the hadn't stepped out of line. By then, the media had been tipped off and rushed to the scene immediately.
On the second day of the sit-ins, 20 people accompanied the Greensboro four, on the third, 60 participated, on the fourth day, 300 people, both black and white joined the sit-in at Woolworth. They took shifts occupying the stools so people could eat, sleep, and go to class.

Outcome:

This event sparked sit-ins within 55 cities in 13 states. Although several people did get arrested for trespassing and disturbing peace, it only drew more attention to how unjust life was for people of color. On July 28th, only six months later, Woolworth’s nation wide were desegregated.
Compare and Contrast to Present Day Event:
The Greensboro Sit-ins can be grouped with equal rights for same sex marriage in 2012 because neither were given a full set of equal rights. During 2012, 38 states were fighting for equal rights to conventional marriage. Similar to the 1960 Greensboro Sit-ins because people of color weren't allowed to sit at the 'whites only' counter, which lead to the Greensboro Four peacefully protesting. A difference between the two is the Greensboro Sit-in was a major event which started a chain reaction that ended segregation in Woolworth restaurants. But there was no major event that occurred to make same sex marraige legal, only rally's and protests(which paid off in 2015). Even though they fought for their equal right issues differently, each of them accomplished their main goal in the end.

Works Cited:

History.com Staff. (2010). The Greensboro Sit-In. Retrieved April 23, 2017, from http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/the-greensboro-sit-in?scrlybrkr=f007cdcb The Greensboro Sit-Ins. (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2017, from http://nchistory.web.unc.edu/the-greensboro-sit-ins/ The Sit-In Movement. (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2017, from http://www.ushistory.org/us/54d.asp Liu, J. (2015, June 25). Same-Sex Marriage, State by State. Retrieved April 23, 2017, from http://www.pewforum.org/2015/06/26/same-sex-marriage-state-by-state/

Works Cited:

Sawyerr, C. (n.d.). Introduction to Bluford Library Tags: bluford, bluford library, critical thinking, english, history, hours, library, ncat, north carolina a&t . Retrieved April 23, 2017, from http://libguides.library.ncat.edu/content.php?pid=109111&sid=826799 (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2017, from http://www.blackpast.org/aah/mcneil-joseph-alfred-1942 (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2017, from http://www.blackpast.org/aah/mccain-franklin-eugene-1941 Revolvy, L. (n.d.). "Joseph McNeil" on Revolvy.com. Retrieved April 23, 2017, from https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Joseph McNeil

Works Cited:

(n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2017, from http://www.blackpast.org/aah/khazan-jibreel-ezell-blair-jr-1941 (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2017, from http://www.blackpast.org/aah/richmond-david-leinail-1941-1990 ---- Severson, K. (2012, July 25). Chick-fil-A Thrust Back Into Spotlight on Gay Rights. Retrieved April 25, 2017, from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/26/us/gay-rights-uproar-over-chick-fil-a-widens.html?scrlybrkr=6c2db8ad

Works Cited:

Works Cited: P. (2008, February 23). Retrieved April 24, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xbbcjn4d1cE&scrlybrkr=f694db3a Joseph_A._McNeil-USAF_2000 [Photograph found in Wikimedia Commons]. (17, January 7). Retrieved April 25, 17, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Joseph_A._McNeil-USAF_2000.JPG غروب الشمس في الصيف طبيعة خلفية [Photograph found in معلومات Wallpaper, Www.allwallpaper.in ]. (2000). Retrieved April 25, 2017, from www.allwallpaper.in David Richmond [Photograph found in Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia ]. (2017, February 15). Retrieved April 25, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Richmond_(activist)?scrlybrkr=21f61ead

Works Cited:

Image ownership. Public domain [Photograph found in Blackpast.org blog]. (2007). Retrieved April 25, 2017, from David Richmond [Photograph found in Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia ]. (2017, February 15). Retrieved April 25, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Richmond_(activist)?scrlybrkr=21f61ead Woolworth Lunch Counter [Photograph found in Www.flicker.com]. (n.d.). Retrieved April 25, 2017, from https://www.google.com/search?safe=active&noj=1&biw=1366&bih=694&tbs=sur%3Afmc&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=woolworths 1960&oq=woolworths 1960&gs_l=img.3..0j0i8i30k1.10749.14566.0.14925.7.7.0.0.0.0.280.1386.0j2j4.6.0....0...1c.1.64.img..1.6.1381...0i30k1j0i24k1.HHhyZCXiBMo&scrlybrkr=f0884e6f#imgdii=diVd9Vqo1mKmGM:&imgrc=oknwITytlhr53M:

Works Cited:

File:A&T four statue [Photograph found in Wikimedia Commons]. (2016, November 9). Retrieved April 25, 2017, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A%26T_four_statue_2000.jpg File:Franklin McCain Circa [Photograph found in Wikimedia Commons]. (2017, January 7). Retrieved April 25, 2017, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Franklin_McCain_Circa_1960.jpg

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