EDUCATION Major Historical Impacts on EducatioN

Plessy V. Ferguson

On June 7, 1892 Homer Plessy who was 1/8 black, sat in the first-class section of a white train car

Judge FERGUSON ruled that he was in error, Plessy argued that the ruling was unconstitutional

Plessy' ruling determined that he must pay a $25 fine or spend 20 days in jail

Although the Supreme Court ruled against Plessy on May 18, 1896, his particular case marked the first post- Reconstruction use of the 14th amendment

The 14th amendment has an "equal protection" provision, which was used in this legal challenge dealing with segregation

Separate but Equal stemmed from the Supreme Court ruling, which legalized segregation. But schools that were designated for blacks were far more inferior to those of whites.

1925
Pierce V. Society of Sisters (1925)

The Compulsory Education Act of 1922 required parents or guardians to send children between the ages of eight and sixteen to public schools in the district that they reside in. The Society of Sisters was a corporation which cared for orphans, educated the youth, and established and maintained academies or schools.

With the Oregon Compulsory Education Act requiring attendance at public schools, forbade private school attendance, which was held unconstitutional under the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment

On June 1, 1925, the court unanimously upheld the lower court's decision, and the injunction against the amended Act.

The request to receive private education was granted but with definite clauses, such as Children Physically Unable, Children who have completed Eighth grade, the distance from school alongside age limitations and specifications, and having to report to the county school superintendent or designated person every 3 months and take an examine to test what's being taught through private instruction. If after the exam, the scores aren't satisfactory, the county superintendent would send the child back to public school for remainder of the year.

BROWN V BOARD OF EDUCATION

Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483, was a turning point for this United States Supreme Court case, where the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.

In 1952, there were five cases that came together in front of the Supreme Court , which were from Kansas, Delaware, The District of Columbia, South Carolina, and Virginia. They were consolidated under one name, Oliver Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka.

Thurgood Marshall argued before the Supreme Court that schools for students of color and schools for white students were naturally not equal

He argued that the separation and inequality disregarded the Fourteenth Amendment and caused African American students to feel less valued by society

In 1954 the Brown V Board of Education was a decision that reversed the Plessy V. FERGUSON, ruling that separate is not equal, and outlaws segregation

Title IX

What is it?

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 was designed to limit discrimination by sex and sexual harassment in public schools and any other government funded institution.

What exactly does it mean?

This means schools are prohibited from restricting admission or participation in activities based on their gender. When speaking of sports, female and male students must have equal opportunity for participation.

Consequences

If a particular school is in violation of Title IX, a claim can be filed in court or with the Office of Civil Rights, which is powerful enough to have federal funds limited at that school, so far there is no documentation of this happening.

About Title IX:

Things to know:

  • It prohibits sex discrimination in education
  • Schools must have established procedures to help victims
  • It applies to both males and females
  • Schools must be proactive to create a campus free of sexual discrimination

Lau V Nichols (1974)

There is not equality of treatment merely by providing students with the same facilities...for students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education- Glogster

Chinese students were not being taught in Chinese, which they understood, and they were being "ignored" simply because they could not speak English.

The parents of these children asked the San Francisco School District for help, the school district declined, and in turn the parents took the district to court

Prosecution points

When denying Chinese speaking children a proper education:

  • Students performing poorly in school
  • They would eventually drop out
  • It would be hard for them to get and hold a job
  • Denies them the chance to exercise their rights as citizens

Lau v I hold was the FIRST Class Action lawsuit brought to court regarding education for language minorities

San Francisco Unified School District had no special programs to meet their linguistic needs which caused them to be at an educational disadvantage

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that "identical education does not constitute equal education.

The court did not base their decision on the Constitution, but on Title VI, which prohibits discrimination on the grounds of race, color, or national origin

The five major events that I picked, are important to me because I am an African American woman. I am considered a minority and all five events were landmarks in the paving of my educational successes. I did specifically choose Pierce v. Society of Sisters because I graduated from an all girls catholic high school. Without Brown v Board of Education, Pierce v Society of Sisters, and Title IX, I wouldn't have had the opportunity to attend the schools of my choice or been deemed equal to my male counterparts.

TitleIX & Issues- Women's Sports Foundation.http://www.womenssportsfoundation.org

Brown V Board of Educationhttp://www.hthmoocs.org

Pierce vs Society of Sistershttp://www.oregonencyclopedia.org

Lau v Nicholshttp://www.slideshare.net

Plessy v FERGUSONhttp://www.readtheplaque.com

Credits:

YouTube Brown V. Board of Education video 350cr.blogs.brynmawr.edu Propresobama.org Afroamhistory.about.com Oregonencyclopedia.org Haikudeck.com Slideplayer.com YouTube Justin Azar video Lau v Nichols Show me.com Knowledge.org

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