On June 7, 1892 Homer Plessy who was 1/8 black, sat in the first-class section of a white train car
Judge FERGUSON ruled that he was in error, Plessy argued that the ruling was unconstitutional
Plessy' ruling determined that he must pay a $25 fine or spend 20 days in jail
Although the Supreme Court ruled against Plessy on May 18, 1896, his particular case marked the first post- Reconstruction use of the 14th amendment
The 14th amendment has an "equal protection" provision, which was used in this legal challenge dealing with segregation
Separate but Equal stemmed from the Supreme Court ruling, which legalized segregation. But schools that were designated for blacks were far more inferior to those of whites.
In 1952, there were five cases that came together in front of the Supreme Court , which were from Kansas, Delaware, The District of Columbia, South Carolina, and Virginia. They were consolidated under one name, Oliver Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka.
Thurgood Marshall argued before the Supreme Court that schools for students of color and schools for white students were naturally not equal
He argued that the separation and inequality disregarded the Fourteenth Amendment and caused African American students to feel less valued by society
In 1954 the Brown V Board of Education was a decision that reversed the Plessy V. FERGUSON, ruling that separate is not equal, and outlaws segregation
What is it?
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 was designed to limit discrimination by sex and sexual harassment in public schools and any other government funded institution.
What exactly does it mean?
This means schools are prohibited from restricting admission or participation in activities based on their gender. When speaking of sports, female and male students must have equal opportunity for participation.
If a particular school is in violation of Title IX, a claim can be filed in court or with the Office of Civil Rights, which is powerful enough to have federal funds limited at that school, so far there is no documentation of this happening.
Lau V Nichols (1974)
There is not equality of treatment merely by providing students with the same facilities...for students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education- Glogster
Chinese students were not being taught in Chinese, which they understood, and they were being "ignored" simply because they could not speak English.
The parents of these children asked the San Francisco School District for help, the school district declined, and in turn the parents took the district to court
When denying Chinese speaking children a proper education:
- Students performing poorly in school
- They would eventually drop out
- It would be hard for them to get and hold a job
- Denies them the chance to exercise their rights as citizens
Lau v I hold was the FIRST Class Action lawsuit brought to court regarding education for language minorities
San Francisco Unified School District had no special programs to meet their linguistic needs which caused them to be at an educational disadvantage
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that "identical education does not constitute equal education.
The court did not base their decision on the Constitution, but on Title VI, which prohibits discrimination on the grounds of race, color, or national origin
The five major events that I picked, are important to me because I am an African American woman. I am considered a minority and all five events were landmarks in the paving of my educational successes. I did specifically choose Pierce v. Society of Sisters because I graduated from an all girls catholic high school. Without Brown v Board of Education, Pierce v Society of Sisters, and Title IX, I wouldn't have had the opportunity to attend the schools of my choice or been deemed equal to my male counterparts.