The Brilliant Views From Satellites Saim Azfar

Satellites.... It is a part of the reason of what we know about space now. Though the name of the creator of the Satellite is unknown, we have evolved over the ages of developing the satellites even more and more. The different views of a satellite, are all around space (through out our solar system), they are the reason we are so up to date with the planets in our solar system today.

Satellites

What are Satellites? Well Satellites are mechanically made machines which we humans designed to launch in the air, to pass the atmosphere to reach space, it was built to make us originally view earth from space, also to truly confirm if the earth is round, but eventually time passed on and well the use of satellites evolved, into looking towards the moons direction, and so time passed on and we got the ability to look over at more planets other than our own, and thus that is why we have such clear images of the planets, they also enhanced the learning for the study of Space which we had before (the use of telescopes), it helps us understand the universe a bit more and more every day.

Different Views

You see satellites have different views of the solar system and it's planets. The planets would include "Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, a few asteroids, and the sun" also the earth as well, We have gathered information and many predictions by how we get a clearer example of why the planets are the way they are now, also we had a clear image of how a lunar, and solar eclipse works (these two eclipses are covered in my Space Lab), the reasons why we couldn't see an image of an solar eclipse because telescopes could not see at all (moon covered the earth in shadow), and with a lunar eclipse we had not a 3d distance image of it now we do and understand more on how both of them work. It has many other views that led to theories if the beginning of the universe like the Big Bang Theory, and Steady State universe (which are covered in my Day by Day) being more accurate, also solar nebula, cosmic microwave, and the asteroid belt are understood better (all three in Day By Day)

Mercury

Mercury is a planet which was formed 4.5 million years ago by the solar nebula, which had cooled down after quite some time and tiny grains of it condensed, collided, and stuck together, and which had eventually a smaller amount of "big objects", in the warm zone close to the sun the planets there were rocky. Even further out, even beyond the "'snow line" there were mixtures of rock, gas, and ice. Mercury is called the closet of the "so-called terrestrial planets (which are explained in the Day By Day), with a total diameter of 3,032 miles (4,880 kilometers), but by comparison Earth's diameter is 7926 miles (12,756 kilometers) so it is much smaller than the Earth. Mercury orbits the sun at a average distance of 0.38 astronomical units (explained in Day By Day). A fun fact is that Mercury is named after the Greek god Hermes (a fleet-footed messenger), Mercury only takes 88 days to complete its "circuit in the sky" (represents the orbital period around the sun, or could be said as time it takes to go around the sun), in Mercury there is no atmosphere, and its temperature ranges between 90 kelvins to more than 700 kelvins (explained in Day By Day). We predict what could be inside the core of Mercury but we speculate that there since Mercury has a very high density that it has a very large iron core, and so it could be partially molten, possibly explaining why Mercury has such a low magnetic field (explained in Day by Day) only 1 percent stronger than's earth. Much of the evidence for this was originally gained by satellites, and telescopes, as well as some space missions.

Venus

Venus is a planet also born like all our planets 4.5 billion years ago (always this will be speculation), this planet could be known as "A near-twin of Earth", it has quite a few similarities to earth, such as Venus is only about 5% smaller than Earth and has about the same density (meaning that it is essentially rocky, terrestrial planet, just like our own). Both of the planets have atmospheres, and Venus orbits in the same general direction of the inner solar system as we do, at an average distance of 0.72 astronomical units compared to Earth which is 1.0 astronomical units, but that's where the similarities end there are some differences as well such as Venus is barely spinning, which in Earth days means that it will take 243 Earth days once on it's axis-backwards. Venus has a very thick atmosphere, which is much thicker than our atmosphere, with even 90 times more pressure on it's surface, this atmosphere supports the upper level (upper part of the atmosphere) wind speeds of more than 218 miles (350 kilometers) per hour which is basically only carbon dioxide, and only small amounts of nitrogen dioxide, oxygen, and water (in it's atmosphere, like Earth atmosphere), the carbon dioxide is very good at trapping heat and so that is why the surface of Venus is so hot (more than 750 kelvins, or 300 degrees hotter than a oven in a house, keep in mind this is the surface), astronomers do wonder why the surface temperature for both Earth and Venus are so different, they believe carbon dioxide was the reason however Earth has about the same amount of Carbon dioxide as Venus but ours dissolves in our oceans, and is trapped inside rocky carbonate minerals (specific types of rocky minerals). As the Space Book says "Researching Venus we have learned of a planet where Carbon dioxide had gone wild, and is a prime example of how studying other planets can help us understand what may be in store for our own world", and so with satellites and constant study of different views we will learn about what is in store for our world.

Mars

Mars is a planet formed 4.5 billion years ago, and is a small planet about half the diameter of Earth and only about 15% of it's volume, We could say the surface are of mars is equivalent to all of Earth's continents together (also could be known as Pangaea), but Mars orbits the from the sun 50 times faster than we do. Mars has a thin carbon dioxide atmosphere (only 1% thicker than Earth's) which can not trap much heat, thus the surface is very cold, the temperature is said that in Daytime near the equator it rarely rises above the temperature of freezing point of water, and nights near the poles (bottom) drop down to the freezing point of carbon dioxide which is 150 kelvins (-190°F). Today it seems Mars is a dusty world in very deep freeze (very frozen), although it was said Mars was the planet that was most like Earth and that during it first few billion years it war born Mars was a warmer and wetter world, all this came from images by spacecrafts and satellites on meteors from Mars, and other data over 50 years. Knowing this we understand 3-4 billion years ago mars was a planet which had a surface where it could inhabit life, the next 50 year of mars exploration will be to see if any areas in Mars have habitable environments and conditions (or if it already is inhabited).

Jupiter

Our Solar system is basically compromised of the Sun (99.8%), and Jupiter (0.1%), and all the other planets (0.1%) meaning that Jupiter is the second biggest planet in our solar system (The sun is the first). It has a mass more than twice of all the planets combined (except for the sun). It has sixty-three known moons and a couple of faint rings orbit this huge world. Jupiter diameter could be known as 23 Earth's across, if the planet was hollow more than 1000 earths could fit inside it. Jupiter is the fourth brightest object in our night sky (after the Sun, Moon, and Venus), Jupiter is bright not only because of how large it is but that, the colors of its visible surface (clouds) that we can see are bright, there is no surface for Jupiter, or any other large outer planets (out of the solar system), everything which is visible (that we can see currently) is clouds, and haze, which are made by exotic yet chemical compounds (materials) like methane, ethane, ammonium hydrosulfide (colorless, water-soluble, micaceous crystals) , and phosphine (a colorless, flammable, toxic gas). the winds are traveling several hundred miles an hour twist it's clouds into horizontal belts, and giant Earth size storm systems, just like the Giant red spot (explained in Day By Day) have gone crazy for many hundreds of years. Jupiter's pressure and temperature increases rapidly as you enter towards it's core, but the chemistry for this planet is that it is made up of 75% hydrogen and 25% helium (just like the sun). A fun fact is that if the solar nebula had been bigger and then Jupiter formed it would have 50-80 times more mass than it already does and would have became a star instead of a planet. The formation of Jupiter affected the solar system in a big way, for example it had interrupted the orbit of other giant planets, and preventing a planet to be formed which is now the asteroid belt. Today Jupiter could be known as a giant magnet still sometimes draw in small bodies like comet SL-9 (a comet that broke a part because it engaged Jupiter). Satellites had given us information on this impact and how Jupiter looks, and showing us how large it is comparing o other planets, also teaching us what its i made out of (what it seems it is made of).

Saturn

Saturn is a planet born 4.5 billion years ago, and is quite a magnificent looking planet. Saturn is the second biggest gas giants (large gas planets), nearly 9 times more wider than Earth and nearly 100 times as massive as Earth. Now why does Saturn look "magnificent" well because of the flat disk that circles this planet's equator, the famous 'Rings of Saturn" which is composed (made) by mostly ice, the ring system is probably no more than 22 to 33 yards (20-30 meters) thick. No one knows if the Saturn rings are ancient (from old times), or new (in the recent billion or millions of years), some believe that it is from the break up of a former icy moon (explained on Day By Day). For Saturn there are 62 accompanying moons, though hundreds of smaller "moonlets" (small moons) are in the ring itself, and billions of ring particles are as big as a house and a car to specks of dust. Fun fact Saturn's largest moon Titan is bigger than the planet Mercury, and is the only moon with a thick atmosphere. Saturn's colors of clouds are fainter and less colorful than Jupiter's, although the atmosphere is about the same, one of the biggest differences between Jupiter and Saturn is that Saturn has a bit less helium relative to hydrogen, making it less "solar" than Jupiter, also wind speeds in Saturn are much faster than that of Jupiter or anywhere else in the solar system which is more than 1,120 miles (1800 kilometers) per hour that is insane. Satellites and other space tools have allowed us to view Saturn and Jupiter differences and according to the "Space Book" they are using them to determine other gas giants among the Extrasolar Planets (explained in Day By Day).

Sun

The sun is the star (not planet) which was said to be born before all the other planets my 0.1 billion years (born 4.6 billion years ago). The creation of the sun is something which astronomers put in a lot of research to find out and so they came up with, that the temperature and pressure in the center area of the Solar nebula grew rapidly for 100 millions of years, until the time came when it had faced a moment where the intensity exceeded hydrogen atoms were put together so clustered that they went under Nuclear Fusion (covered in Day By Day) which then meant it turned into helium and releasing energy that is light and heat, and so the sun was created (this is what we believe). To us "the sun is is critical to the creation and continuing survival of all life in our planet" so says the Space Book, which makes sense because of how we gain energy and heat from it in order for us to survive and well give our live an easier way to live, also gives us the energy and heat for plants and trees which we absolutely. Once a star is born they live pretty stable (steady) lives and then eventuality die out, and the sun is no exception it too will die out as well in another 5 billion years it will keep fusing with hydrogen atoms to turn them into helium atoms, thus the hydrogen will eventually run out so the sun will start shedding its layers (outer layers). Also side (not fun) when the sun will break apart it will burn Earth and all the surrounding planets (almost destroying the solar system) also fusing helium to it's core, the process of this will be when the helium will run out the sun will slowly start fading into a white dwarf (explained in Day By Day) and then eventually dims to the center. Also fun fact astronomers believe that one to three new stars are born every year, and that one to three stars die in our milky wave galaxy, basically meaning the same amount of stars are born and die every year (most probably). The observations of the sun are what satellites are used for more often than telescopes (because of how bright the sun is), and so we study the process of what the sun is going through, as well as the movement of earth and other planets around it.

Earth

Our own world, this planet was formed 4.5 million years ago and is the largest of the terrestrial planets and is the only planet with it's own large natural satellite. Earth could be known as a "rocky volcanic world that has separated its interior into a thin, low density crust, a thicker silicate mantle, and a high density, partially molten iron core" so says The Space Book in geologist eyes. Earth is the only planet which we know of yet that has life living on it. Records of fossils and old stones tell us that life on Earth most likely began as soon as it could (yet no one knows how it truly began). When Earth was formed it seems that it was very stable even 4 billion years, with our location of Earth being in what is known as the "Habitable Zone" (The zone where Earth is in and it is perfect for living conditions, most likely from the suns distance), where temperatures remain moderate, and water stays in it's liquid form, which allows multiple types of life to evolve and thrive. A fun fact is that the high amount of oxygen, ozone, and methane in Earth's atmosphere are of sign of life that could be detected by "alien astronomers" (life from other planets), this exact thing is what astronomers are looking for to find Extrasolar planets (explained in Day By Day), the main question for Earth that astronomers long to find out, is that are there other Earth's out there? Satellites are the main way we get information on Earth, and how we use common applications in life like "Google Maps" to help us and it is from satellites we get maps as good as they are, but satellites show us the rotation, and how it looks from a space perspective, and can show us if there are any problems with how Earth is?

Socially

Socially how Satellites affect society. What are the point of Satellites in my life today? this is a question that could be asked by people in society that are not astronomers and know little about space, and Earth, well for that how do you think GPS works, satellites give you that, and same as maps online, without satellites people would have a much harder time with directions which could lead to multiple issues, as well as reading while driving (a map). another example of socially is that DATA comes from satellites so internet could not be on your phone if you decided to leave a house, so communication would be less, and fun games like Pokemon Go couldn't exist without the use of DATA. Satellites over all save the world a lot of issues because of how it is a machine from space which can help you all around the world.

Environmentally

Satellites affect the world environmentally because of the fact that satellites tell us about the environment itself, and how it looks as well as how the land looks, basically because of satellites we were able to see the super continent Pangaea and how it looked back in times, as well as how the continents look today, as well as how countries look. Satellites show us information on the sun so that we know about sunset and sunrise, which affect the environment because of how it affects water, plants (organisms), as well as the climate, it can even show us how different area in the world look in more detail, so we can understand other areas in the worlds environment. Satellites affect our knowledge of environment of Earth a lot.

Theories of Our Universe

  • Well I should mention the two theories that I had researched The Steady State and Big Bang theory.
  • "The formation of the universe, is the bigbang, known as the beggining of both space and time which occurred during 13.7 billion B;C, someone by the name Edwin Hubble had discovered that both the universe is expanding in any direction we can see (360 degrees), meaning at some point the universe was small but then it kept expanding, hubble space telescope and other sources had revealed that about 13.7 billion years ago there was this massive and violent explosion of singularity in the universe.Singularity could be known as “zones” which defines our current understanding of physics, they are thought to exist from the core of the black hole, black holes are known as areas with high level of gravitational pull (http://www.skwirk.com/p-c_s-4_u-138_t-402_c-1413/steady-state-theory/nsw/steady-state-theory/the-big-bang-and-our-universe/the-formation). The universe was made and its first instant it had billions, millions degrees , but then became 10 billion degrees, all the universes protons (hydrogen atoms) and neutrons formed together to create primordial plasma for the first time. When the universe was only 3 minutes old helium and other light elements had been born by hydrogen in the same kind of Nuclear fusion, this process still occurs today but deep inside stars. Hydrogen that is in our body was made when the universe was only 1 minute old (all information above from “the space book” page 19). Dark energy is a source of energy which is mostly unknown, and is theorized to be all around space tending to speed up the expansion of the universe, it is said that before people had thought that dark energy had only baryonic particles, but now it is said that it is made up of multiple particles, like axions, and WIMPS (weakly interacting massive particles)" this is what I had wrote about The Big Bang and it's relations in my Day By Day, but it explains it nicely.
  • For the Steady State theory I had wrote "This is a theory that can even rival the Big Bang theory on how the universe truly existed. This theory just like The Big Bang states that the universe is always expanding but the universe does not change its look over time, but for this to work new matter has to be formed in order to keep the density equal over time. In the big bang theory it tells us how matter that is around us was made from nothing and to solve this problem of creation mathematically. He proposed that the decrease in the density of the universe caused by its expansion is balanced by the continuous creation of matter. The matter condenses into new galaxies that replace receded galaxies. The expansion and creation work against each other and a steady state of energy is maintained, this theory war formed in the 1960’s right after the discovery of quasars. There were some problems with this theory though. Quasars are thought to be luminous galactic core, powered by a massive black hole, quasars are so far away that their light took billions of years to actually reach earth, so basically quasars are objects from the past indicating that the billions of years ago the structure of the universe was very different than how it is today (meaning how can the steady state theory be correct?). Scientists discovered the cosmic microwave background which is thought to be leftover radiation from the Big Bang. The Steady State Theory has explained this background radiation as the light from ancient stars which has been absorbed and emitted in all directions by galactic particles. Most astronomers were not convinced by this explanation because the discovered microwave background was very smooth, meaning that it did not come from different small sources. Also, its spectrum is close to that of an ideal black body. In physics a black body is the body that absorbs all electromagnetic radiation. The Steady State Theory is now no longer accepted by most cosmologists. Today the majority of astronomers consider the Big Bang theory to be the best description of the origin of the universe"
  • Both of these got evidence from both telescopes as well as satellites, so it relates to my topic because without the different views of a satellite we wouldn't have much evidence then we do today, to even prove theories like the "Steady State Theory" false (PS: sorry for all the reading but now you don't need to read this part on my Day By Day)

Economically

Satellites affects the world economically, as wells as it's views (somewhat). "It is estimated that a single satellite launch can range in cost from a low of about $50 million to a high of about $400 million. Launching a space shuttle mission can easily cost $500 million dollars, although one mission is capable of carrying multiple satellites and send them into orbit" meaning that the cost of a Satellite is quite great as well as it's launch but you can launch multiple satellites at once meaning to save equipment, and money, also once satellites are launched the developers of it gain a lot of money for it's usage from the government, and the public taxes (that they use for DATA), so it eventually is paid back to them and so that means it affects us not much, and not them as well, we only pay for satellite usage if we need it (for DATA, not GPS map).

Challenges In Space

The Hazards, costs, and benefits of Space travel are all related to Satellites in the way that to understand the obstacles in space travel you must know what is in store and so satellites can show a clear path for space travel to be a bit more safe, as wells as shows us the hazards of traveling in space like asteroids, and meteors, also understanding the among of distance so you have the right amount of power for the rocket ship to even travel in the first place. the costs could be the money usage, as well as the risk of lives in stake, so satellites can keep a brief view of how the astronauts are doing so that the space organizations (like NASA) are able to have some kind of understanding of how the astronauts are doing as well as visual on the planets to gather information, and for money well the cost for launch could be related by the cost of a launch of a satellite. the benefits of space travel are simple, to learn more on space, and other planets which a satellite can do but not as well, as real human interaction.

Altogether Space technology like Satellites are there to learn more, and to keep in touch with our world and others, as well as some human society assistance.

Citations

  • - http://www.globalcomsatphone.com/hughesnet/satellite/costs.html (costs of a satellite)
  • The Space Book (knowledge on all the planets that were mentioned)
  • http://www.dictionary.com/ (where I defined a lot of words from other sources from)
  • (Websites where I got my planet information from) http://www.space.com/58-the-sun-formation-facts-and-characteristics.html , https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/jupiter , https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn (Brainerd, Jerome James (24 November 2004). "Characteristics of Saturn". The Astrophysics Spectator. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2010., , http://nineplanets.org/venus.html , https://mars.nasa.gov/, https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/mercury)

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