La Historia de Espana Max O'Neal 8 Hearts

The Beginning

  1. Spain was a great place comerciar, repostar, and reparar with many resources ofrecer
  2. Because of this the historia is very messy
  3. The Celtas were the first gente to invade
  4. The Celtas took the western part and the Iberos take the eastern part

The Celtiberos

  1. Iberian peninsula name comes from these people
  2. Galicia still has influences of Celtic cultura (bagpipes, language)

The Romans Are Coming

  1. Rome was constantly expanding
  2. Come to Spain and take it over
  3. Exhausted all recursos
  4. Rome’s idea was matar everyone they see

Roman Leftovers

  1. Segovia acueducto still in Spain
  2. Meridian coliseo still in Spain also

Germanic Visigoths

  1. Were barbaric people and tomaron weakened Spain from Rome

The Moors

  1. Arabs, Berbers, Syrians from North Africa invadieron the peninsula in 711 A.D.
  2. They are being religiously persiguieron so Spain is an escape place
  3. Easily defeat Visigoth Kingdoms conquering nearly all of peninsula.

La Reconquista

  1. Almost continual fight between Christian kingdoms in the north of peninsula and Muslim kingdoms who controlled the South
  2. Muslim Spain llamaron “Al Andalus” in Arabic
  3. Santiago: “Matamoros”
  4. Patron Santo of Spain

Toledo City of Tolerance

  1. Jews
  2. Christians
  3. Muslims
  4. Influence of all 3 still evident today
  5. Synagogues
  6. Churches cathedral
  7. Arab style architecture

1492

  1. Moors had dividieron into small kingdoms
  2. Last Moorish king, in Granada, defeated in January of 1492

Reyes Catolicos

  1. Fernando of Aragon
  2. Isabel of Castilla
  3. Se casaron in 1469
  4. Uniting Christian kingdoms against the Moors
  5. Se solidificaron their power through religion; military success
  6. Ended Reconquista by defeating Moors in Granada in 1492

The Spanish Inquisition

  1. 1492; Last Moorish king derrotó; all Muslims remaining in Spain forced irse de or convertir to Christianity
  2. 1502; Given the success against the Muslims, it is now decided that all Jews need to leave Spain or convert to Christianity
  3. But how do we know they’ve converted? We interrogate and torture them until they confess-or put them on trial and later ejecutaron (or quemaron) them!

Gold Diggers

  1. Juana, daughter of Fernando and Isabel
  2. Marries Felipe (el Hermoso) of the powerful Habsburg family
  3. Juana known as La Loca
  4. Legend has it that when Felipe died, she cargó his coffin through the streets of Granada, stopping often to kiss the corpse of the dead king

Carlos I 1516-1556

  1. Son of Juana la Loca and Felipe el Hermoso
  2. Holy Roman Emperor
  3. Charles V of Austria/ Germany
  4. Under his rule, Spanish Empire rapidly - Conquistas of Incas, Aztecs
  5. Gold, silver flooded into Spain from Americans. Along with new crops: corn, potatoes, fruits

Road Warrior

  1. Carlos V used the funds that were pouring in from the colonies to Subsidize the many religious war he was fighting across Europe
  2. Spain under Carlos V became one of the staunchest defenders of Catholicism as it fought to stop the spread of the protestant reformation across europe
  3. He passed on this legacy to his son Felipe II

Felipe II: Family Feud

  1. Continued wars against Protestants
  2. In 1554, married Mary Taylor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic alliance
  3. A male heir from this marriage would have become King of England, but there was no son and the Protestant Elizabeth I come to power in England
  4. Annexed Portugal, Dutch declare independence from Spain: starts war involving England
  5. 1588: Spain’s Invincible Armada defeated by England

La Leyenda Negra

  1. Known as black legend
  2. So powerful it was said that he would even eat a baby to protect from revolts (myth)

El Greco

  1. Painter from Greece, his real name is Domenikos Theotokopoulos
  2. Homosapien
  3. Traveled to Spain in search of work in the decoration of El Escorial
  4. Felipe II hated his style and refused to hire him
  5. El Greco moves to Toledo and hits the big time

More Habsburg Kings

  1. Felipe II is succeeded by his own son, the aptly named Felipe III
  2. Felipe III dies and his son takes the throne.
  3. Felipe IV reigns from 1621-1665
  4. Felipe IV reigns over one of the richest cultural periods in Spanish History: The Siglo de Oro

Sigle de Oro

  1. Literature, Drama, Art
  2. La vida es sueño by Pedro Calderon de la Barca
  3. Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina
  4. Character of Don Juan introduced-image of “Latin Lover” created

End of Habsburgs

  1. Felipe IV’s son, Carlos II is known as “ El Hechizado” (“ the Bewitched”)
  2. He died in 1700, leaving no heir to ascend to the throne of Spain

War!

  1. War of Spanish Successor pitted royal families and their nations against each other to see who would rule Spain
  2. War ends in 1713, with Spain losing Gibraltar to the English
  3. Felipe V, the Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV, becomes King of Spain. The Bourbon family remains the royal family of Spain today

The Bourbons

  1. Competent rulers, but more concerned with life at court
  2. Efforts to convert Spain into a modern state based in the Neoclassical ideas of the enlightenment

Carlos IV

  1. Grandson of Felipe V (son of Carlos III)
  2. Total incompetence
  3. Dealing with Napoleon leads to use of lots of dynamite

War Again

  1. Rebellion of 2 May 1808 in Madrid begins War of Spanish Independence
  2. Joseph Bonaparte quitaron from the throne of Spain in 1812
  3. During the upheaval, most of the colonies in America gain independence
  4. Constitution of 1812 establishes a parliamentary monarchy

Fernando VII (1814-1833)

  1. Son of Carlos IV, returns from exile in France to rule after defeat of Napoleon's troops
  2. Totalitarian rule, constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on Constitution of 1812
  3. Died in 1833, leaving only a daughter, Isabel

More Bourbon Troubles

  1. Country is divided on having a woman ruler
  2. Supporters of Fernando’s brother, Carlos face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “Guerras Carlistas”
  3. Isabel reigns until 1868
  4. Isabel rules through political turmoil, with the Carlists continually opposing her authority
  5. The Glorious Revolution removes Isabel II from power in 1868
  6. A short lived experiment places King Amadeo of Saboya, an Italian, on the throne from 1870-1873
  7. The first Spanish Republic is proclamó in 1873
  8. It ends in 1874

Bourbons Again

  1. The Bourbons return to the throne with the reign of Alfonso XII from 1875- 1885, followed by his son Alfonso XIII from 1902- 1931
  2. Alfonso XIII was born in 1885 (shortly after his father’s death). His mother oversaw the government as his regent in the interim
  3. In typical Bourbon fashion, Spain quickly begins a downslide, marked by the loss of it last remaining colonies in 1898 and embarrassing military defeats in Morocco

Alfonso XIII

  1. Unable to put a stop to the political tension and low morale of the country. Alfonso XIII allows a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931
  2. The dictatorship is unable to solve the problems of the country
  3. In 1931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try

Another Republic

  1. The Second Republic of Spain is estableció in 1931, ushering in an era of hope and optimism
  2. They set up a new progressive constitution, which gives women the right to vote, allows divorce, separates the Church from State, and creates public schools

Can’t we all just get along?

  1. The new government creates an even deeper political and social divide
  2. The military, the Church, and the upper classes think there are too many changes going on
  3. Socialists and Communist factions think there are not enough changes and want more change, faster

Civil War - Francisco Franco

  1. General Francisco Franco stages a military revolt in 1936, beginning the Civil War
  2. Francisco's fascist troops are aided by force from Germany and Italy
  3. Republican forces get very little help
  4. Warends in 1939, with Franco’s Nationalist forces winning
  5. Fascist dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975
  6. Idealized “glory years” of Spain under Carlos V and Felipe II
  7. Gender roles, religion, regionalism band, censorship
  8. Exile of artists, intellectuals, scientists

One More Time

  1. Basque terrorist group ETA assassinates Franco’s chosen successor
  2. Franco chooses grandson of Alfonso XIII to take over
  3. Upon Franco’s death in 1975, Juan Carlos I de Borbon becomes King of Spain
  4. Instead of continuing Franco’s policies or establishing an absolute monarchy, Juan Carlos declares democracy in Spain
  5. He names Adolfo Suarez the prime minister and he starts the Transition - giving back rights and takes away censorship

Democracy

  1. Spain becomes an influence in the world and makes a strong alliance with the United States

More Terrorism

  1. On march 11, 2004, islamic fundamentalist terrorists place bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid, killing nearly 200 and injuring over 2000

A New Direction

  1. 2 days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain
  2. His first action as promised was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq
  3. Under his government, Spain joined several other European nations in legalizing same-sex marriage (Franco rolls in grave)
  4. He won re-election in 2008

La Familia Real - Current

  1. As a parliamentary monarchy, Spain retains its royal family, although all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the President of the Government
Created By
Maximilian O'Neal
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