A male horse is called a stallion and a female horse is called a mare. A young female horse is called a filly, and a young male horse is called a colt. When the baby is first born it is called a foal. A horse's father is called a sire and the mother of a horse is called a dam.

The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae. The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, Eohippus, into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began to domesticate horses around 4000 BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses.

Evolution of the horse


Tack is a piece of equipment or accessory equipped on horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. Saddles, stirrups, bridles, halters, reins, bits, harnesses, martingales, and breastplates are all forms of horse tack. Equipping a horse is often referred to as tacking up. A room to store such equipment, usually near or in a stable, is a tack room.

A tack room with saddles and bridles etc...


Horses come in a variety of vivid coat colors, ranging from solid and static to multifaceted and ever-changing. These coat colors are controlled by complex genetics. Bay horses have brown bodies and black manes, tails, and points on their legs, faces, and ears. Chestnut horses have red coats that can range from light liver. They can also showcase flaxen manes and tails, which are lighter the horse’s coat. A true black horse has a pure black coat, with no brown hairs. The coat sometimes has a blue hue to it. Seal brown horses are nearly black but have brown hairs in the fleshy parts of their body, usually around the muzzle, elbow, and flank.Dun horses come in a variety of shades but all showcase some of the characteristic dun factors: dorsal stripe, horizontal striping on legs, dark-tipped ears, dark points on the face, shoulder blade stripes, light hairs in the mane and tail, and cobwebbing throughout the coat. Colors in this group include the bay dun , red dun (with a red or chestnut mane and tail), chocolate dun and blue dun. Buckskin horses have golden coats, black points (legs and ears), and black manes and tails. Palominos have golden coats and creamy white manes and tails. Palominos' base coat can range from a pale yellow to a rich, gold color. Horses with the gray gene are born another color, such as bay, chestnut, or even palomino or dun, and gray over time. Gray foals are often born otherwise solid with “gray goggles,” which is slight graying around the eyes. A light gray is distinguished from other light- or white-colored horses by the presence of dark-pigmented skin.Roan horses have white hairs or ticking throughout their coats. Roans are born with their coat color and do not change over time. Roans come in a variety of base colors, including but not limited to strawberry , red , and blue . Appaloosa patterns come in a myriad of colors and spotting and/or blanket variations. Many look as though someone has covered them with a white blanket covered in spots. Pinto coloring looks as though someone has splashed white paint over an otherwise-colored horse, or colored paint over an otherwise-white horse, leaving large splotches.

A dappled grey horse.


There are 4 main types of equestrianism. Dressage, Jumping, Cross country, Eventing (There are many more sports but these 4 are the most important)


Dressage is a highly skilled form of riding performed in exhibition and competition, as well as an "art" sometimes pursued solely for the sake of mastery. As an equestrian sport defined by the International Equestrian Federation, dressage is "the highest expression of horse training" where "horse and rider are expected to perform from memory a series of predetermined movements."


Show jumping, is a part of a group of English riding equestrian events that also includes dressage, eventing, hunters, and equitation. Jumping classes are commonly seen at horse shows throughout the world, including the Olympics. Sometimes shows are limited exclusively to jumpers, sometimes jumper classes are offered in conjunction with other English-style events,

Jumper classes are held over a course of show jumping obstacles, including verticals, spreads, and double and triple combinations, usually with many turns and changes of direction. The intent is to jump cleanly over a set course within an allotted time. Time faults are assessed for exceeding the time allowance. Jumping faults are incurred for knockdowns and blatant disobedience, such as refusals


Eventing (also known as horse trials) is an equestrian event where a single horse and rider combination compete against other combinations across the three disciplines of dressage, cross-country, and show jumping. The competition may be run as a one-day event (ODE), where all three events are completed in one day (dressage, followed by cross country and then SJ) or a three-day event (3DE), which is more commonly now run over four days, with dressage on the first two days followed by cross country the next day and then show jumping in reverse order on the final day. Eventing was previously known as Combined Training, and the name persists in many smaller organizations. The term "Combined Training" is sometimes confused with the term "Combined Test" which refers to a combination of just two of the phases, most commonly dressage and show jumping.


Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch. They are also used in competitive sports including, but not limited to, dressage, endurance riding, eventing, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, vaulting, polo, horse racing, driving, and rodeo.


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