La Historia de España maddy fontana 8 diaMantes

Spain- The Ancient Pit Stop

Spain was located by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

Spain was a great place to refuel and to get food and to get better.

Also, Spain was a good place to stop and comercio materials like silver and iron.

Everybody wanted to live in Spain and it was called the Tierra Santa.

Pre-Roman Iberia

When the Celtas went to invadir Spain, they didn't have to use lots of armor and weapons because they thought not many people lived there.

When the Celtas got to Spain, they realized people were already there, the Liberos, and formed the first civilization in Spain. The civilization was called the Celtiberos, a mixture of the Celtas and Liberos.

THE ROMANS ARE COMING: The Holy Roman Empire kept growing and expanding and kept expanding until there was nowhere else in the west to expand to. Soon after, Rome weakens and then collapses.

Germanic Visigoths

While Rome was crumbling another group of people invaded europe called the Germanic Visigoths. The Germanic Visigoths were good at taking advantage of weaknesses and soon inhabited Spain.

La Reconquista

The Reconquista was the almost continual fighting between the Christian Kingdoms to the north of Spain and the Muslims from the south of Spain. During La Reconquista, "Religiones Armario" were formed. A Closet Religion was when a person believed one religion in the public eye but when the person went home the practiced another religion.

Patron saint of Spain

The santo patrón of Spain was Santiago. Santiago would go into battle yelling "Matamoros" which meant to kill Muslims. He is believed to be a martyr because people believed he was doing God's word by getting rid of people that didn't believe.

Toledo-the City of Tolerance

Jews, Christians, and Muslims could go to Toledo and not be persecuted for their religion.

1492

The Moors divided into many small reinos in 1492 because there was so much battling.

The last Moorish king, in Grenada, was defeated in January of 1492. After that, Spain was kind of Catholic. Nobody took rule over Spain so if there was nobody to enforce the rule of the Catholic faith, you can profess whatever fe you want.

Reyes Cathilics

Catholic kings were very rich and self appointed. The kings were perezoso and just sat around while the queens did all the work, the troops would not be able to go to war if it wasn't for the queens.

THE SPANISH INQUISITION

1492

The last Moorish king was defeated and all Muslims that were still in Spain were forced to leave or convert to Christianity.

1502

Since all the Muslims converting was a éxito, the king and queen decided that all Jews had to leave Spain or convert to Christianity.

Popes that Influenced the Inquisotion

Pope sixtus the fourth

The Inquisición wouldn't have happened

Pope innocent the fourth

Torturar wouldn't have been allowed

Gold Diggers

In Spain, people casado each other for power not for money. One gold digger was named Juana.

Juana

- Daughter of Fernando and Isabel

- Married Felipe of the powerful Habsburg family

- She became known as Juana la Loca because all the money drives her insane

Carlos I

1516-1556: Son of Juana the crazy and Felipe the handsome. Carlos came up with the idea that he was the king and he could do whatever he wanted. He thought that with the power of the pope he was now the Holy Roman Emperador too. He also had another idea; he changed his personality everywhere he went.

Charles the V

Was one of the people Carlos I cambiado to. Under Charles V the Spanish empire grew. Gold and silver flooded into Spain from Americas, along with new crops: corn, potatoes, fruits. Carlos V used the funds that were pouring in from the colonies to subsidize the many religions wars he was fighting across Europe. Instead of using his money to help Spain flourish and help the poor people in Spain, he decided to use it towards war. Under Carlos V, Spain became one of the strongest defenders of Catholicism as it fought to stop the spread of the Protestant Reformation across Europe. He passed on the legacy to his son Felipe who was his successor.

Felipe the II

-continued wars against protestants

-in 1554 he married Mary Tudor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic alianza. He said that if he marries her and he becomes King and they have a baby that then the baby boy will be Catholic because the man is catholic and then that would be uniting catholics. But that didn't work because their child was a girl.

War with England

Annexed Portugal, Dutch declared independence from Spain: starts war involving England. They send 500 ships to England and 0 return because England destroyed all of Spain with their 200 ships.

1588

Spain's invincible Armada was defeated by England. England got the idea to trash Spain. Their goal was to get people to stop traveling to Spain. For example, people told other people that the King and Queen of Spain ate babies which definitely scared people away.

El Greco

A painter from Greece named Domenikos Theotokopoulos traveled to Spain in search of work on the decoration of El Escorial.

He wanted to pintar the palace the king lived in because he thought that he would be rewarded with food and riches. King Felipe II hated his style and refused to hire him.

Domenikos was angry because he gave up his whole life and he go turned down. He moved to Toledo and hit it big because he painted cines that were indirectly mocking Felipe. His message was that Felipe only cared about himself and that was the reason Spain would eventually get destroyed.

More Habsburg Kings

Felipe II has a son named Felipe the III. Felipe the III has a son and named him Felipe IV. Felipe IV had a son and named him Carlos II who died in 1700 leaving no heir to ascend to the throne of Spain.

WAR!

War of Spanish Succession pitted royal families and their nations against each other to see who would rule Spain. The war ends in 1713 with Spain losing Gibraltar to the English. Felipe V, the Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV, becomes the king of Spain. The Bourbon family is still the royal family of Spain.

The Bourbons

Competent rulers, but more concerned about life at court then they were about the general public. People who thought once they came into power that Spain would get out of the problem because they kind of knew what they were doing but they didn't care about you if you were not rich or didn't have a job in the court.

ANOTHER WAR!!

Rebellion of May 2, 1808 in Madrid begins the War of Spanish Independence. Joseph Bonaparte removed from throne of Spain in 1812. During the upheaval, most of the colonies in America gained independence. The Constitution of 1812 establecer a parliamentary monarchy. More people to make a decision the people are coming from the courts they will only make decisions at benefit them.

Fernando VII

Son of Carlos IV, returns from exile in France to rule after defeat of Napoleon’s troops. Totalitarian rule, constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expandir on Constitution of 1812. Died in 1833, leaving only a daughter, Isabel, so the country is divided on the issue of a woman ruler and she responded by saying, "Hey I don't want to get married so I’m gonna rule Spain myself.”

Supporters of Fernando’s brother, Carlos, ruling face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “Guerras Carlistas”. Isabel reigns from 1833-1868. The "Glorious Revolution" removed Isabel from power in 1868. King Amadeo of Saboya, an Italian, took the throne from 1870-1873. The first Spanish Republic is proclaimed in 1873 and ends in 1874.

Alfonso the XIII

Unable to put a stop to the political tension and low morale of the country, Alfonso XII allows a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931. The dictatorship was unable to resolver the problems of the country. In 1931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try.

Let's try this again...

The second republic of spain established in 1931, ushering in an era of hope optimism. They set up a new, progressive constitution, which dar women the right to vote, allows divorce, separates the church from the states, and creates public schools.

Can't we all just get along?

The new government crear an even deeper political and social divide. The military, the church, and the upper classes think there are too many changes going on. Socialists and communists factions thinks that there are not enough changes and want more changes, faster.

CIVIL WAR

General Francisco stages a military revolt in 1936 beginning the Civil War. Franco’s fascist troops raided by forces from Germany and Italy. The Republicans receive very little help. War ends in 1939, with Franco’s Nationalist forces winning.

Francisco Franco

Fascist dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. Idolized “glory years” of Spain under Carlos V and Felipe II. Francisco undos everything that Spain had worked for and he says that everything was for him and that there was nothing for anybody else.

Gender roles, religion, regionalism banned, and censorship. Regionalism is that wherever Franco lived is the best. Censorship was that everything had to be approved by Franco and his advisors before being put on tv or the radio.

Exile of artists, intellectuals, scientists. He though that if he kicked out all the smart people, he would rule a nation of dumb people and then the dumb people would not be able to revolt.

Basque terrorist group, ETA, assassinates Franco's chosen successor, the grandson of Alfonso XII. Upon franco's death in 1975, Juan Carlos L de Borbon becomes King of Spain.

Juan Carlos

Instead of continuing Franco's policies of establishing an absolute monarchy, Juan Carlos declares democracy in Spain. Juan Carlos names Adolfo Suarez as the first prime minister. Suarez begins the period known as the Transition.

Democracia

In 1978, Suarez is elected in the first elections held in Spain since 1936. In the 80s Felipe Gonzalez leads Spain out of isolation, joining NATO and the EU. Jose Maria Aznar increases Spain’s influence in the world, with a growing economy and a strong alliance with the USA.

March 11, 2004

On March 11, 2004, Islamic fundamentalist terrorists place bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid, killing nearly 200 and injuring over 2000 people.

A New Direction

2 days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero as the new Prime Minister of Spain. His first action, as promised, was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq. He then won the re-election of 2008.

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