The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) is the smallest species of penguin. It is found on the coastlines of southern Australia and New Zealand, with possible records from Chile. They are currently Least Concern for being endangered. Little penguins eat small fish such as anchovies, squid, plankton, krill, small octopus and pilchards.
Little penguins face predators at sea such as sharks, seals, Killer whales and predators on land such as Sea Eagles and large Gulls. This is one Biotic factor that would limit the size of the population. Another Biotic factor that would influence the size of the population is a loss in food sources.
Abiotic factors that limit the size of the Little penguins population are oil spills and trash in the ocean. oil spills will wipe out any species that is living in the ocean which then leads to the penguins to be without food sources. Trash causes the wildlife around the ocean to die due to eating toxic materials or things they can't digest.
This graph shows the birth and death rate for Little penguins. the birth rate is higher than the death rate until about 2008. This happened due to loss of food sources or more predators that penguins.