Christianity and Islam Timber bossard

Founder of Christianity

Founder: Jesus Christ

Jesus was born somewhere from 6-4 bc and died ad 30. He was a religious leader and founder of Christianity. According to Matthew and Luke, Jesus was born in Bethlehem but was raised in a village near Sepphoris called Nazareth. Jesus was known to be around 30 years in age when spreading his knowledge on his new founded religion. Jesus's death happened through being crucified on the cross. After Jesus died, Paul and Peter then took over by spreading the word on missionaries, becoming known as the second and third founders of Christianity.

Reformation: Reformation was caused by things as simple as different beliefs and values. For example the differences between baptism, salvation, and the nature of Jesus in these religions were large. It is widely known that the bible may be broken down into different meanings and seen in different lights. This was a big problem between the Catholics and the Protestants. Other reasons are related to huge moral differences such as the rights of women and slavery. This caused the split to be a dramatic change.

Martin Luther was born on November 10, 1483 in Germany. He was one of the biggest revolutionaries on the protestant reformation. He began the division and followed all the way through with it. He was a professor and priest as well as a writer. He was the creator of the 95 thesis also known as the Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences. He revealed them by making a copy and nailing it to the door of the Wittenberg castle church. It was a list of 95 "questions and propositions for debate". This forced the catholic into a counter-reformation that then led to the council of Trent, held from 1545 to 1563.

Martin Luther

Complaints against the catholic church: people complained that bishops and priests didn’t even know the basic teachings of the church they had this idea that now that they were catholic they weren't as caught up in the religious aspect. They also believed the pope was too involved in politics and wasn’t fulfilling his religious duties. People were getting angry with the pope because he himself believed he could forgive sins although the people of the church believed only Jesus could forgive sins. The final complaint was the secrecy of the church. The catholic church didn’t seem to have as much of a growing faith as the protestant church. They managed to keep that somewhat hidden in order to keep others judgement away but then this had a chain reaction of people getting frustrated with the secrecy itself.

Catholic Church

5 differences between the catholic and the protestant:

Tradition: In the protestant church the traditions aren't nearly as important as the scriptures, but in the catholic church traditions are VERY important.

Salvation and Grace: "Protestants often express the idea that salvation is by faith alone, through grace alone, in Christ alone... In contrast, the Roman Catholic Church views justification as a process, dependent on the grace you receive by participating in the Church"

The Eucharist: "When it comes to the Eucharist, which most Protestants call ‘The Lord’s Supper,” or “Communion,” the Roman Catholic Church holds to the doctrine of transubstantiation—the idea that the edible ritual elements used during the mass literally become the body and blood of Christ... In contrast, some Protestants, like Lutherans, hold to perspective called consubstantiation, where Jesus’ body and blood are seen as coexisting with the bread and the wine"

Priesthood: "Rather than a vertical structure, Protestants see the church as having a horizontal structure. Dr. Svigel contrasts the role of the Catholic priest with the Protestant idea of the priesthood of all believers: “That which was reserved just for the magisterium, the ability to bind and loose to forgive and withhold forgiveness through the sacraments and through penance and such, that was just the role of the priest. From Luther on, we have the ability to confess our sins to one another, pronounce forgiveness as the scripture says.”"

Justification: "protestants view justification as the moment God declares that a guilty person is righteous because of what Christ has done. Sanctification, then, is the process of being made more righteous throughout your life. However, Dr. Horrell notes that Catholics view justification as both a point and a process: “What the Roman Catholic rejects is that there is an imputed righteousness of Christ to us at the moment of salvation, that we are counted as fully righteous in the sight of God”"

The inquisition: This was a group of government institutions whose goal was to combat religious sectarianism. They were normally chosen from members of the Dominican Order, and this was simply just a response to the counter- reformation.

The peace of Augsburg: This was known to be a temporary settlement within the church. Before picking up again churches and religious groups agreed to stay civil until the situation was sorted out. This happened on September 25, 1555.

Christianity size: as of 2010 Christianity was known to be the largest religion with 6.9 billion people on earth that considered themselves Christians.

Christianity as a whole is dropping drastically in numbers. There are nearly 8 percent less in about 7 years. This is because with the current us culture and habits, we are busy and fast going people. Many people say they don’t have time for church etc. it is also a fading culture, as time goes on traditions fade and its contagious. fewer parents go to church, meaning less children are going to church which equals a growing number in those who are not raised being affiliated with the church. Also in America, we don’t have the inspiring people and visionaries we did in the beginning. The religion is declining and is nothing but a natural process.

The founder of Islam was Muhammad, he was born in Mecca around AD 570 and died June 8, 632. When a child, Muhammad lost his mother and grandfather, losing all money and resources he had to restart around AD 595. He then met a wealthy, successful women named Khadija, she offered her marriage. They had four daughters together, and lost multiple infant sons. Muhammad founded the Islam culture and was accepted by the muslins. He spread Islam though the Arabian Peninsula and brought a little faith to the Arabian community. Muhammad died of natural cause. A fever. With little to no recourses to help the sick he died and was buried in the Green Dome, Medina, Saudi Arabia. The Muslins felt as if they were "left without a leader". This caused an outbreak of people refusing to pay taxes, others "declared themselves prophets", and clans and tribes even abandoned Islam. Muhammad then had four caliphs pick up where he left off. Abu, Bakr, Umar Uthman, and Ali. They all knew Muhammad's intentions and decided to take it into their own hands to spread Islam, holding citizens to the same standard and the became known as the "rightly-guided" caliphs

Muhammad

How was Muhammad accepted: In 622 Muhammad was meditating in a cave in Mount Hira, when he had a revelation. He began to believe that he himself was sent my god and was the final caliph. He then fled to Mecca to spread the news of his new finding and what he believed. The reaction had negatives and positives just as you would imagine. He began gaining followers. From hundreds to thousands. But there were groups that weren't going to budge. They did not want to convert nor see it his way. With all the differences in the citizens, in began to separate society into two separate groups. The Shiites and the Sunnis.

Cause of the split of Sunni and Shiites:

The Shiites believe that only descendants from Muhammad should or can be the leader. But Sunnis on the other hand believed, Muhammad didn’t have all that much power. They thought the religious leader should be elected by the community and voted in. With this said, only about 10% of Muslims are Shiites, and the rest are Sunnis.

Reason for split: The Shiites and Sunni split was caused by the difference of opinion. After Muhammad's death some believed the leader should now be passed down to his cousin Abu. Others believed that that was illegitimate and the power should remain in Ali's hands. Those who believed Abu should be the leader are called Sunnis and those who have faith in Ali are called Shiites.

5 core beliefs: "The basic doctrines of Islam are collectively known as the Five Doctrines of Islamic Faith. They include a belief in the absolute unity of God, belief in angels, belief in prophets, belief in scriptures, and belief in the Final Judgment."

The spread: When the four caliphs came about the Islam culture spread rapidly. That and followers of Islam are obligated to protect and defend his/her faith to those who are non-believers. This was a concept developed by Jihad. One other helpful tool was the acceptance of all types of people. Your shape, size, gender, color etc. Didn’t matter. This gave a welcoming community of accepting people.

Citations

The spread of islam . (2002). Retrieved March 12, 2017, from http://history-world.org/islam4.htm

www.pub.naz.edu

http://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/meast/02/23/bahrain.sunni.shiite.explainer/

http://www.livescience.com/33071-whats-the-difference-between-shiite-and-sunni-muslims.html

Islam after Muhammad's death. (2012, October 17). Retrieved February 22, 2017, from https://www.slideshare.net/mrsfitzsocialstudies/islam-after-muhammads-death

Gushee, D. (n.d.). Why is Christianity declining? Retrieved from www.washingtonpost.com

Muhammad Biography. (n.d.). Retrieved February 22, 2017, from http://www.notablebiographies.com/Mo-Ni/Muhammad.html

M. (2008). Muhammad and the Faith of Islam. Retrieved March 2, 2017, from http://www.ushistory.org/civ/4i.asp

Chappell, B. (2016, April 2). World's Muslim Population Will Surpass Christians This Century, Pew Says. Retrieved from www.npr.org

%. (2008, March 2). Causes of divisions & conflicts among Protestant faith groups. Retrieved from http://www.religioustolerance.org

Rosario, M. D. (2014, January 28). 7 Key Differences Between Protestant and Catholic Doctrine. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from www.dts.edu

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