One revolutionary theory, the theory of evolution, challenged the old ways of the church and supported new economic and political theories.
- Directly challenged the creationism of the church
- Was used to support the free market and rights of the individual and corporation
- Was used to support the use of political force (Bismark)
Another theory, the philosophical theory of Utilitarianism, was used as a weapon as an ideological war between the church and the newer secular movement.
- Was used by the church to explain how a creator would have made people in the correct way to be rewarded by following his will
- Was used by the secular movement to explain away feelings of morality made without a god.
The intellectual theory of electromagnetism was used to support the intellectual movement and the expansion of the British empire.
- Was used to expand telegraph communication systems across the British Empire
- Founded the basics of electromagnetic waves and the entire branch of physics that branched out using the electromagnetic spectrum