These are the topics we covered in our first partial
ACTIVE OR PASSIVE?
We use PASSIVE when:
- The subject is unknown. Example: My phone´s been stolen!
- We want to focus on the object of the sentence rather than the subject. Example: Hamlet was written by Shakespeare
- We want to sound more impersonal and distance ourselves from the facts. Example: 500 workers will have to be made redundant.
Use the best tense to make your sentence sound better.
Use the correct form of the verbs in your sentences.
Phrasal verbs and idioms
A phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and preposition, a verb and an adverb, or a verb with both an adverb and a preposition.
A phrasal verb has a meaning which is different from the original verb. That's what makes them fun, but confusing. You may need to try to guess the meaning from the context, or, failing that, look it up in a dictionary.
- There 4 types of phrasal verbs
- Type 1: Verb + adverb -there is no object (intransitive) example: He walked in and sat down
- Type 2: Verb + adverb + object (transitive) The adverb can be separable but not if the object is a pronoun. Example: We put off the meeting/ put the meeting off/ put it off
- Type 3: Verb + preposition + object (transitive) the preposition is inseparable. Example: He ran after the dog/ ran after it
- Type 4: Verb + adverb + preposition + object (transitive) The adverb and the preposition are inseparable. Example: Henry went out with Kate for six years.
Some Idioms learned
- A man of few words- My uncle is a man of few words, he does´t talk too much
- At the end of the day- At the end of the day everything will be alright
- Breath a word- If you breath a word about this, I won´t talk to you again
- Not mince words- Gaby does not mince her words, she always talks directly and clearly about any situation
- Eat your words- If you don´t have anything nice too say, just eat your words.
- From the word go- I knew from the word go that you are a very nice person
- Get a word in sidewise/edgewise - I got a word in sideways with Marianita because she talked to me really fast and excited
- Had the face to- I had the face to say the truth
- By word of mouth- I don´t trust all the things I hear by word of mouth
- Be flooded with- I am flooded with a lot of stress
- Avoid something or somebody like the plague- She avoids me like the plague because I am mad with her
- In want off- She wants off that flight right now, she needs to get home as soon as possible
- Lost for words- When Natalia told Hugo she was in love with him, he was totally lost for words
- More fool me- I though he was going to pay me what I lend him, more fool me!
- Say the word- If you ever need some help just say the word
- Stand a chance- Do you think I still stand a chance to be her boyfriend?
- Take it or leave it- It is your last opportunity, take it or leave it
- The coast is clear- Go ahead! the coast is clear! there is no danger around
- Have the last word in something- My father always has the last word in the house
- When all is said and done- We can´t change the plan, when all is said and done
We´re only human vocabulary
Adverbs and adjectives
- Bitterly- amargamente
- Highly- altamente
- Perfectly- perfectamente
- Sorely- muy
- Virtually- virtualmente, prácticamente
- Deeply- profundamente
- Distinctly- distintivamente
- Eagerly- ansiosamente
- Fully- completamente
- Sincerely- sinceramente
- Unlikely- improbable
- Clear- claro
- Disappointed- decepcionado
- Impossible- imposible
- Tempted- tentado, atraído
We use them to avoid repetition
More phrasal verbs
- Put up with: tolerate
- Takes in: assimilate
- Taken in: deceive
- Made up for: compensate for
- Picking up: improve
- Putting it on: pretend
- Doing away with: abolish
- Taken out: extract
The use of -ever for emphasis
Can be used to express:
- A) it does´t matter what/ who/ which/, etc
- EXAMPLE: We will go whatever the weather
- B) Indifference or uncertainty
- EXAMPLE: I will call you later, whenever i get the time
- C) In questions they can express surprise
- EXAMPLE: Whatever does it mean? Whoever is that with your sister?
- D) Surprise can be expressed informally and more emphatically with... on earth...?
- EXAMPLE: How on earth did you do that?
Vocabulary: Verbs to nouns
Conquer/ conquest - Destroy/ destruction - Threaten/ threatened -Assassinate/ assassination
Invade/ invasion - Demolish/demolition - Pacify/ pacifist - Terrify/ terrorist - Lose/loss