CANADA 2041 Chanpreet sidhu

INTRODUCTION:

As of 2013 Canada's population was 35.16 million people and has increased over the past years. Along with providing a home to a large group of people it is important that they live in a sustainable country where they don't have to worry about breathing toxic air, experience health risks at such a young age or worry about how to maintain the country's population. These issues have been some that Canada has been hinting upon and it's important that they are resolved before it's too late. That's why the following solutions along with the issues are being presented.

POPULATION:

With the number of births and deaths intersecting after the baby boom, immigration has taken a progressively important role in Canada’s current population growth. Immigration played a highly important role in the growth of Canada’s population for the past 160 years up until today. Between 1851 and 2001, natural increase was the key component contributing to Canada’s population. However, the impact of natural increase started decreasing in the 1960’s and because of that in 2001 it has accounted for approximately one-third of population growth. Using Canada’s statistics, natural increase is predicted to continuously decline in the future years to come, the key factor to this the estimated number of deaths. To sustain Canada’s population an immigration rate of 7.5 immigrants is needed for each 1,000 people representing Canada’s population and a fertility of 1.7 children per women. In the beginning of 2031, immigration is going to be accountable for approximately 80% of the country's’ population growth compared to the current around 67%. Without a maintained match of immigration or an extraordinary boost in fertility rate Canada’s population be in potential risk and be close to zero in the next twenty years.

Observed (1851 to 2011) and projected (2011 to 2061) annual average growth rate, natural increase and migratory increase in Canada per intercensal period
Observed (1921 to 2008) and projected (2009 to 2061) number of births and deaths in Canada

It is apparent that resolving this issue requires an increase in the number of immigration to Canada. This is a suitable solution because it will help balance the dependency load and the working population. Also it will help fill up the work force because it is predicted that there may not be a population great enough to take over jobs the seniors have retired from. Canada should accept a young population to immigrate to Canada which can be done through various ways (for example - work permit or student visa).

Annual number of landed immigrants in Canada, 1852 to 2010

RESOURCE AND INDUSTRY:

Forestry contributes a large amount of profit to the Canadian economy, the industry itself commits 7% of total exports in Canada. Canada has 9% of the world’s forest in its borders and maintaining it has become a global issue. This industry may be economically and socially beneficial because of its profit to the economy and daily resource reliance. Extraction is the main factor to this issue because the method of clear cutting, also the one used the most often because of it’s efficiency is leading to deforestation. Deforestation has long term effects on climate, soil, biodiversity and hydro logical managements and is a concern of environmental leading activities.Smoke created from burning trees pollutes the atmosphere increasing carbon dioxide levels in the air and furthering the greenhouse effect. Other reasons for deforestation includes burning, land conversion for exploration and infrastructure for gas wells. Forests being cut down for exploration and infrastructure is an issue occurring in Alberta ( also possibly in other places across Canada ) for gas wells, pipeline routing, access to these sites and pumping stations. Trees also play an important role in making the air breathable because they convert carbon dioxide into oxygen.The forest industry may have economic and some social benefits but without environmental importance it does not qualify as a sustainable industry.

Being a country with a large portion of the world's forest comes with great responsibility. The big question is "how can we continue to use this resource in the most sustainable manner possible"? Clear cutting is not the only method used to extract trees it is only used the most because its high efficiency. Shelter-wood cutting is a great way to help resolve deforestation. Which is because when trees are removed seeds are replaced to make up for the ones that were extracted. This allows trees do their job in helping filtering the air, providing a shelter to wildlife, supplying food and daily supplies (such as paper and medicinal paper).

URBAN SPRAWL:

With a large area of land most Canadian choose to settle beside other cities. That is causing rural land to get urbanized and this issue is leading to urban sprawl. One of the major factors of urban sprawl is the increase of dependency on cars which leads to further traffic, extra carbon emissions and more smog. The cause of this is often poor planning and only thinking of the effects for a short-term period. A study has been shown that in the past three decades obesity has almost tripled with Canadian youth between the ages of 12 to 17. This is due to the lack of physical activity a barrier that gets in the way of safely doing that is areas extending over a large geological region. This makes it troublesome to walk or bike to and from various locations and results to driving, lengthy commute times all summing up to less physical activity time. These issues can be solved in a short-period of time focusing on long-term planning before putting a project in action.

Minimal planning leads to routes leading to nowhere and taking up valuable green space

One major solution Canada needs to encounter to help resolve the issues regarding urban sprawl is planning. Most of the times communities are built with very little planning making it hard to access everyday necessities. A solution to this is building multi story buildings as they provide a home to a larger group of people than any individual house. With that being said building facilities like grocery stores, shopping centers/stores, doctor’s offices and workplaces close to those apartment buildings. That way they can be easily accessible by walking or taking a bus. This will help reduce the dependency on cars and obesity levels among young children.

Toronto is a great example of what a livable city looks like.

CONCLUSION:

These resolutions to the issues have been thoroughly thought about with a lot of inquiry based on what other countries or cities individually have done to become sustainable. The solutions listed above are also ones that have worked if done with full planning and looking at long term effects. Therefore the unraveling of the problems presented are what will help make Canada more sustainable by 2041.

CITATIONS:

https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/as-sa/98-310-x/98-310-x2011003_1-eng.cfm

http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-003-x/2012002/article/11678-eng.htm

http://www.davidsuzuki.org/what-you-can-do/reduce-your-carbon-footprint/discourage-urban-sprawl/

http://www.alternet.org/environment/12-ecologically-sustainable-countries-and-why-they-should-be-admired

http://www.livescience.com/27692-deforestation.html

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