The Water Cycle
The Water Cycle is the process of when water travels from a body of water, to the sky/clouds, and then back down to Earth. The sun plays a huge part in the water cycle. The sun causes water to evaporate starting the whole cycle. When the water vapor reaches the cold air it starts to condensate creating clouds. When the clouds reach cool air it triggers the clouds to release the water, this is called precipitation. Starting the cycle all over again.
Chemical Reactions: Hydrogen reacts with oxygen to form water.
- Organic compounds: amino acids, peptides, nucleic acids and proteins
- Inorganic Compounds: Man-made fertilizers and ammonia
Humans do two major things to intervene with the water cycle. One is we withdraw a lot of water and the other is we put different substances in the water. We use water to drink, water crops, and other daily things. A lot of substances enter the water, polluting it.
Nitrogen is 78% of the world's atmosphere. Nitrogen is the building block of proteins, DNA, and RNA. There are 5 different processes in the Nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen fixation is the process when N2 is converted into an organic form so more organisms can use it. Nitrification is the process when bacteria converts ammonia into Nitrite and then into Nitrate. The process of assimilation is how gets nitrogen. They absorb nitrates from the soil. Mineralization is the decaying process. When the plants and animals die the bacteria turns back into nitrogen.
- Chemical Reactions: Nitrogen Fixing (N2->NH4+) Nitrification (NH4+->NO3-) Denitrification (NO3->N2+N2O)
A big way humans affect the Nitrogen Cycle is changing the amount of nitrogen in the biosphere. A big way we do this is by using fire to change the environment. Burning fossil fuels also has a major affect on the nitrogen cycle.
The carbon cycle is the movement of carbon between living things and the environment. Carbon is released into the atmosphere and stored into living things like animals and plants. The first step in the process is photosynthesis. Plants take the carbon dioxide out of the air and release it as oxygen. Animals then eat the plants and breathe in the oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide again.
Chemical Reactions- Chemical respiration, photosynthesis
- Inorganic compounds- carbon dioxide, methane
- Organic compounds- sugars, proteins
Burning fossil fuels and deforestation are some ways that humans affect the carbon cycle. A big impact of these things is higher global temperatures. This can cause the oceans temperature to warm causing harm to all organisms in the ocean.
The phosphorus cycle moves through rocks, soil, sediments, organisms, and water. A process called weathering takes place on rocks which makes the rocks release phosphate ions. The ions are then released into the soil and water. The plants then soak up the ions. Animals then eat the plants and the ions are turned into DNA. When the animal dies and decays the ions go back into the soil.
Chemical reactions- substitution reactions, oxidation reactions addition reactions, elimination, and oxidative.
- inorganic- compounds without carbon
- organic- organic phosphorus
A major affect on the phosphorus cycle is using synthetic fertilizer. The chemicals in the fertilizer cause plants to overgrow.