Chile By morgan cox

The first people to be in Chile were the Incas in the northern part of the country and the Araucanos in the south. But in 1541 the Spaniards came over and made colonies in Chile the leader of these colonists was Pedro De Valdivia. Chile is made up of mostly Mountains, Chile has the Andes Mountains that runs down the eastern side of the country from the north toward the middle of the country. When you get down to the southern part of the country you are met with an uncountable amount of islands, most of the islands were formed from volcanic eruptions. Chile is a long, narrow country stretching along South America's western edge, with more than 3728 miles of Pacific Ocean coastline, from north to south Chile is 2,653 miles long. Chile's currency is the Chilean peso. The Chilean peso is 0.0015 of the US Dollar.

Easter Island

Easter Island is a remote volcanic island in Polynesia. Its native name is Rapa Nui. It’s famed for archaeological sites, including nearly 900 monumental statues called moai.

Indigenous Groups

The Flag of Chile

The indigenous groups to Chile are the Atacameño, Aymara, Colla, Diaguita, Kawashkar, Mapuche, Quechua, Rapa Nui, and Yagán peoples. There is about 17.95 million people that live in Chile with the median age being 34. The official language of Chile is Spanish but there are other languages that are native to Chile, Mapudungun, Quechua, Rapa Nui, Huilliche.

Landscape of Chile

Chile tiene una línea costera de casi 4.000 habitantes. Chile tiene un inusual contraste en terrenos de playas, fiordos, canales de aguas profundas, glaciares y icebergs. También tiene la Cordillera de los Andes, que es un sistema de montaña relativamente joven. En el sur, un grupo casi incontable de islas montañosas frente a la línea de costa, formando una serie de canales sinuosos y fiordos. Centenares de glaciares se ramifican de los campos de hielo, Camino al nivel del mar. El agua de deshielo de los glaciares se reúne en lagos como el General Carrera, el segundo lago más grande de América del Sur.

Dentro de Chile se pueden encontrar muchos tipos diferentes de animales que viven en su hábitat natural. Dos de los animales más interesantes y significativos que encontrará en Chile son el Pingüino y el Zorro Gris. Verá ambos animales desde el norte hasta el sur.

The Music of Chile

La música chilena ha pasado por un viaje a través de los años, y vale la pena mirar los muchos sonidos que forman la identidad del país andino: cueca, folclore, boleros, cumbia, pop, rock, hip-hop y electrónica.

Chilean music can be summed up by looking at two different Chilean notions:

  • Huachaca is a way a Chilean might describe himself, shying away from any formal definition but championing three defining features: “Humilde, Cariñosos y Republicanos” (humble, affectionate people of the Republic). They oppose class discrimination, all things “cuico” (posh, pretentious) and the privileged classes´ focus on foreign culture. Huachaca also describes a social movement that promotes humble living and simple pleasures.
  • Choro – another distinctly Chilean word – refers to a brave person with a strong personality who is both graceful and daring.

Cueca, roots-music and folklore

Chile has a very rich traditional music that has three different geographical zones: northern, central, and southern, each with their own characteristics and sounds. It also has other musical expressions like Easter Island music and Mapuche music.

The national dance in Chile is Cueca. It is danced at traditional formal events and varies greatly depending on the region in which it originates.

Interestingly, Cueca has been taken by the young generation and made into Cueca Brava – recreated in such a way that drives away its tradition and inflexibility. In doing so, it has become chora and popular.

Boleros and traditional male singers

Chileans generally experienced a change in their taste in music during the 1950s, when bolero music – a form of dance originally from 18th Century Spain popularized through song in Cuba in the late 19th Century – overtook tango as their preferred music genre.

Lucho Gatica, who has combined folklore and bolero music, could be regarded as the king of his genre, emerging as one of the most well known Latin American songwriters.

One of Chile’s most well-known songs was by Osmán Pérez Freire (1880-1930). His famed tune Ay Ay Ay has been reproduced around the world by the likes of Placido Domingo, Luciano Pavarotti, and Nana Mouskouri. Peréz Freire was a true innovator who blended diverse styles of Chilean and Latin American music with then modern rhythms like the fox trot.

The song La joya del Pacífico describes in its lyrics the port of Valparaiso. Like a type of folklore, it is sung generation after generation. Songs such as these are a part of any traditional Chilean band’s repertoire.

Neofolklore

The years between 1930 to 1960 saw a rebirth of traditional Chilean folklore, first promoted by the group Los Cuatro Huasos. The movement took folk country music, popularized it and spread it not only around Chile but also in others countries in Latin America and America.

After them appeared a lot of important folkloric groups such as Los de Ramon, Los Huasos Quincheros and El Duo Rey Silva.

The dictatorship years and the “New Chant”

A young group of musicians remained in Chile during the military dictatorship, producing “The New Chant.” During the dictatorship years, curfews and tight art laws meant that artists such as these found shelter in universities and gatherings known as peñas. The voice of the 80’s was markedly antiestablishment, the “New Chant” combining different styles and influences while paying close attention to the lyrics of songs in order to express ideas that are politically risky and/or taboo. The most popular band was Los Prisioneros, whose songs are still said to represent the youth of the entire generation. Other notable examples of the movement include Congreso and Los Jaivas, bands that either remained in Chile or returned from exile.

New days, new innovations

In recent years, various local Chilean musicians have achieved international acclaim. Mauricio Castillo, better known as Chinoy and otherwise known as the ‘Bob Dylan of Chile’ combines acoustic guitar with electronic instruments and internet technology. Various Santiago-based bands are making a splash on the local circuit. One such marvel is an outrageous 10-piece collective who play cumbia and carribean-influenced music – Chorizo Salvaje. Other pop artists have been admired in Europe after launching singles on the internet and releasing them around Spain, with El País recently describing Chile as a ‘new pop paradise’. Featured artists have been Javiera Mena, Gepe, and Dënver, three distinctive and promising musicians whose unique sound characterizes the Chilean pop-music scene today. Other better-known bands within Chile might be Los Bunkers, Teleradio Donoso, Kudai and Los Tres. Hip-hop, cumbia and reggaetón are also popular music styles.

Electronica

A rising New York-based star, Nicolas Jaar, already has his own record label, catalogue of featured singles, and schedule of gigs around the world. Jaar was recently featured on one of the world’s most influential music websites, Pitchfork Media, and is expected to go from strength to strength in the coming years. Together with fellow Chileans Matias Aguayo, Luciano, Cristian Vogel and Dandy Jack, they form the cutting edge of the contemporary electronic music scene in Chile.

The Food of Chile

Como en la mayoría de los países, las personas que se establecieron en Chile influyeron mucho en su cocina. Mucho antes de que los europeos vinieran a Chile, los pueblos nativos usaban el maíz en muchos de sus platos. The Spanish, and later the British, Germans, Arabs, and Italians, also brought their cooking knowledge. Today, everyday food in Chile is a mix of all of these influences. Chileans usually eat four meals a day, and like in the US, they start the day out with breakfast.

  • Breakfast - is smaller in scale than the traditional pancakes and eggs seen in the United States. Chileans usually eat a light breakfast consisting of toast with very sweet tea or coffee with milk.
  • Lunch - is one of the larger meals of the day in Chile. Traditional lunch foods include cazuela, a clear broth made with rice, potato, corn and meat. Pastel de choclo, a corn casserole made with meat, olives and vegetables, is a popular lunch summer dish. A side of pan amasado, a wood-stove baked bread readily found in the Chilean countryside, often comes with lunch.
  • Dinner - Parrillada-style food, or any food cooked in a brick outdoor oven known as a “parilla,” is popular as a dinner choice throughout Chile and the southern cone of South America. Similar to the way Americans cook meat on a barbecue grill, Chileans cook chicken, sausages and lamb on a parrila. Seafood, also readily available throughout Chile, is served steamed, grilled or fried. Ceviche, a traditional spanish dish that requires seafood to be refrigerated overnight with a lemon marinade, is a Chilean favorite. So is “manchas a la parmesana,” clams with parmesan cheese, which offer a nod to Chile’s Italian influence. Those looking for fast food should try “El Completo,” a hot dog with the works – mayo, ketchup, guacamole and tomatoes.
  • Snacks - The empanada is a common snack throughout Latin America, but Chileans eat their pastry shells filled with pino, a combination of stewed beef and onion, or filled with shellfish. A quick steak sandwich or ham & cheese sandwich also makes a great snack for many Chilean families.
Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner and Snack in Chile

The Culture of Chile

La explicación más aceptada del origen del nombre "Chile" es que se deriva de la palabra nativa Aymará chilli que significa "la tierra donde termina la tierra". Chile es considerado como una de las naciones más homogéneas de América Latina en términos étnicos y culturales. In contrast to many other Latin American nations, Chile has not experienced the emergence of strong regionalism or conflicting regional cultural identities. Since the late nineteenth century, both the northern and southern regions have been mainly populated by people coming from the central region, helping to strengthen the country's cultural homogeneity.

Notwithstanding the existence of a strong dominant national culture, some cultural regional traditions can be identified. In the northern provinces near Bolivia, Aymará Indians have been able to preserve many aspects of their Andean culture. In the southern region the Mapuche Indians are a large cultural group who strongly contributed to the formation of Chilean culture. On Chiloé Island also in the south, a distinct chilote culture emerged over the centuries from a relatively harmonious blending of Indian and Spanish backgrounds; this culture is characterized by rich traditions of music, dance, and mythological tales. Some two thousand miles off the coast of Chile lies the remote Eastern Island, which is inhabited by twenty-eight hundred native islanders who still keep alive many of their Polynesian cultural traditions.

Since the late nineteenth century, Chilean culture has also been nurtured by the arrival of a large group of immigrants, mainly Germans, British, French, Italians, Croatians, Palestinians, and Jews. Today they fill leading positions in academic and cultural circles as well as within the country's political leadership. Nevertheless, many Chileans are often not even aware of their ethnic and cultural backgrounds and they firmly embrace the dominant culture of mainstream society.

Secular Celebrations

Labor Day (1 May) is a national holiday. Union leaders and government officials participate in worker gatherings that celebrate the importance of labor to the nation.

Día de las Glorias Navales (21 May) commemorates the 1879 naval battle of Iquique during the War of the Pacific, where Chile's national hero, Captain Arturo Prats, lost his life in naval combat against Peruvian vessels. In coastal cities, people commemorate Prats and his crew by boarding small boats covered with Chilean flags and throwing flowers into the sea.

The celebration of Chilean independence in 1810 takes place on 18 September. Chileans go into the streets to celebrate with folk dances and national dishes. This is the country's most important secular celebration. During this celebration, Chileans eat a large variety of traditional food. As a snack or the first course of a large meal, Chileans normally eat empanadas. This pastry of Spanish origin is stuffed with meat, cheese, or seafood, as well as onion, raisins, and olives. Another popular starter is humitas, which contains a paste of white corn, fried onions, and basil, wrapped in corn husks and cooked in boiling water. A classic second dish is pastel de choclo ( choclo is the Mapuche word for corn). It is a white corn and beef casserole topped with sugar and mostly cooked in traditional black ceramic dishes, handmade in the small town of Pomaire. Also on Independence Day, large parrilladas (barbecues) are organized across the country. Large quantities of wine, chicha (fermented apple brew), and pisco (grape brandy) accompany the celebrations.

18 September - Independence Day

Día de la Raza (12 October) commemorates the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus and cheers the Spanish background of Chilean culture. In recent years, indigenous groups have made it clear that this celebration does not represent everyone in the country.

On New Year's Eve (31 December), and New Year's Day (1 January), Chileans gather with their families and friends, normally around an asado (barbecue). These holidays also mark the initiation of the summer vacation period for many people. The New Year is traditionally received with a spectacular fireworks display at the port of Valparaíso that is transmitted by television to the entire nation.

As you can see, there are so many reasons to travel to Chile. Their history, culture, food, and music are just a few of the experiences that you will enjoy while you are there. Chile should definitely be on your bucket list!

The Amazing Activities of Chile

Tourism in Chile has experienced sustained growth over the last few decades. In 2005, tourism grew by 13.6 percent, generating more than 4.5 billion dollars of which 1.5 billion was attributed to foreign tourists. According to the National Service of Tourism (Sernatur), 2 million people a year visit the country. Most of these visitors come from other countries in the American continent, mainly Argentina; followed by a growing number from the United States, Europe, and Brazil with a growing number of Asians from South Korea and PR China. The main attractions for tourists are places of natural beauty situated in the extreme zones of the country. The main tourist sites in the south are national parks and the coastal area around Tirúa and Cañete. Here are just of the few things I would recommend that you do while in Chile:

Torres del Paine National Park

Torres del Paine National Park.En el extremo sur de los Andes en Chile se encuentra el Parque Nacional Torres del Paine, uno de los lugares más impresionantes del Hemisferio Sur y sede de algunas de las rutas de senderismo más clásicas del mundo. Si usted va a visitar este parque nacional necesitará ropa más cálida como el clima en los promedios de verano en torno a 50 grados con la oportunidad de llover o nieve en cualquier momento del año y en el invierno la temperatura promedio es de 27 grados. Puerto Natales is the closest big town and they have buses that will travel the four-hour route to and from the park or it is quicker by car. Accommodations range from design-forward upscale lodges to campsites and dormlike refugio rooms.

Información del Parque

La unidad Torres del Paine está ubicada en la Región de Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena, en la comuna de Torres del Paine, Provincia de Última Esperanza. Fue creado el 13 de mayo del año 1959. Es conocido mundialmente por los macizos que le dan su nombre, gigantes de granito modelados por la fuerza del hielo glacial. La unidad destaca por la protección de las especies de fauna como ñandú, blanquillo, lechuza. En cuanto a los mamíferos, algunas de las 25 especies presentes en el Parque está el puma, chingue, zorro colorado, además de distintas clases de reptiles (6), anfibios (3) y peces (6). En cuanto a flora hay 274 especies de plantas clasificadas en: estepa patagónica, matorral preandino, bosque magallánico (predomina la lenga) y desierto andino.

  • Tarifas: Temporada alta: adultos nacionales $6.000, niños nacionales, $2.000 adultos extranjeros $21.000, niños extranjeros $6.000, adulto en situación de discapacidad$6.000 y adulto mayor $3.000. Temporada baja: adultos nacionales $4.000, niños nacionales $1.000, adultos extranjeros $11.000, niños extranjeros $1.000, adulto en situación de discapacidad$2.000 y adulto mayor$1.000. Temporada alta se considera desde octubre a abril y Temporada baja desde mayo a septiembre.
  • Servicios: El Parque Nacional Torres del Paine cuenta con servicios concesionados de alojamiento, camping, navegación y venta de alimentos.
  • Accesos: A la unidad se puede acceder por camino pavimentado de 250 kms entre Punta Arenas y Puerto Natales y posteriormente 150 Kms por la ruta 9 norte. O bien por el camino Y-290, conocido como Lago Porteño, ruta de 80 kms que comunica Puerto Natales con el Parque.
  • Información de Contacto: Casilla electrónica: magallanes.oirs@conaf.cl, teléfono: /56) 61 2238875

Surfing.Si planea surfear en Chile, las regiones norte y centro ofrecen las mejores opciones. La temperatura del agua varía mucho a medida que se mueve de la región norte al sur por lo que tendrá que tener un traje de neopreno, dependiendo de dónde usted decide surf. One of the more popular surf towns is Pichilemu, a small community three hours from Santiago. Pichilemu has been home to many professional surf championships. If you are just a beginner or are an expert, you will find so many great places to surf.

Rio Bio Bio

Rafting y kayaking.Los muchos ríos y arroyos espumosos de Chile apoyan incomparables oportunidades de rafting. Los principales destinos del país, el poderoso Río Bío Bío y el Río Futaleufú, atraen a visitantes de todo el mundo. Rafting trips generally range in length from one to eight days and, with the Bío Bío, sometimes includes the option of climbing 3160m Volcán Callaquén. This trip is offered by Bio Bio Expenditions. The tour season runs from December - March. The length of the trip is 9 days and will cost you from $2900 plus $200 round trip flight. In addition to these challenging rivers, gentler alternatives exist on the Río Maipo close to Santiago, the Río Trancura near Pucón, and the Río Petrohue near Puerto Varas. The Maipo makes a good day-trip from Santiago, while excursions on the latter two are just half-day affairs and can usually be arranged on the spot, without advance reservations. In general, all rafting trips are extremely well organized, but you should always take great care in choosing your outfitter – this activity can be very dangerous in the hands of an inexperienced guide. Chile’s white-water rapids also offer excellent kayaking, though this is less developed as an organized activity – your best bet is probably to contact one of the US-based outfitters that have camps on the Bío Bío and Futaleufú. Sea kayaking is becoming increasingly popular, generally in the calm, flat waters of Chile’s southern fjords, though people have been known to kayak around Cape Horn. It is important to note that the Chilean navy is very sensitive about any foreign vessels (even kayaks) cruising in their waters, and if you’re planning a trip through military waters, you’d be wise to inform the Chilean consulate or embassy in your country beforehand.

Lake Todos los Santos

Lago Todos los Santos. Ubicado dentro del Parque Nacional Vicente Pérez Rosales, en la región de los lagos del sur de Chile, se encuentra el Lago Todos los Santos, o el Lago de Todos los Santos. A veces se conoce como Lago Esmeralda, que significa Lago Esmeralda, debido a su color verde esmeralda. It is one of the biggest attractions in the national park. The lake was formed by glacial and volcanic activities. It covers an area of about 69 square miles, and it has a maximum depth of about 1,105 feet. The lake flows into the Petrohué River and the Petrohué Waterfalls. Visitors come to Lake Todos los Santos for boating, kayaking, rafting, swimming, and fishing. You can also enjoy hiking near the lake and watching for native animals in the area. From the lake, you can also see Osorno Volcano, Puntiagudo Volcano, Tronador Volcano. The lake has two ports, Peulla and Petrohue, which are part of the Lakes Cross, connecting Puerto Varas to Argentina. The closest airport is Puerto Montt. Park entrance is 1200 Chilean pesos (US$2) for adults. Children ages 12 and under are free. Opening hours are 9am to 6pm in the summer and 9am to 5:30pm in the winter.

Palacio Cousiño

El Palacio Cousiño sigue siendo el más magnífico de los palacios históricos, el que deslumbró a la alta sociedad de Santiago por la magnitud de su lujo y opulencia. Fue construida entre 1870 y 1878 por Doña Isidora Goyenechea, viuda de Luis Cousiño, quien había recopilado una fortuna con sus minas de carbón y plata. All the furnishings and decoration were shipped over from Europe, especially France, and top European craftsmen were brought here to work on the house. This palace became the property of the Government in 1940 and remained so until 1968. The first floor was burnt to ashes, but the ground floor remains totally intact, and provides a wonderful close-up view of late-nineteenth-century craftsmanship at its best: Italian hand-painted tiles; Bohemian crystal chandeliers; mahogany, walnut and ebony parquet floors; a mosaic marble staircase; and French brocade and silk furnishings are just a few of the splendors of the palace. During this time it was used as the official guest residence for state visits. In 1977, it was opened to the general public as a museum and in 1981 it was declared as a National Monument. Visitors must take the 30–45-minute guided tour (included in the entry fee), and is available in Spanish or English. The address is Calle Dieciocho N 438, Santiago, Chile. Phone: 56 2 698 5063. Monday to Friday - 9:30 am - 1:30 pm; 2:00 pm - 5:00 pm; Saturday, Sunday and Holidays - 9:30 am - 1:30 pm. General Admission for Adults $1,800 CLP / $4 USD and for Children $900 CLP / $2 USD. This price includes a guided tour.

Please enjoy this video of the Top 10 Tourist Attractions in Chile. As you will see, Chile is an amazing and beautiful country to explore with lots of history and culture.

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