About the Biome
The tundra is the coldest and driest of all biomes. It is also quite large, it covers 1/5 of the earth. It has no trees, but it still has plants. They have mountains and hills, also rivers and lakes. The winter's are very long. Summer can last about 6-10 weeks. In summer the soil becomes very soggy from all the snow and rain.
Winter can reach up to -50f (-45). Rarely can get above 50f (10c), which is just enough to thaw the surface. The average temperature in winter is 20f. It is the driest biome because they only get 10 inches (at most) a year. When the moisture sinks into it creates permafrost. The permafrost is 6 inches below the surface. The top part thaws, the bottom, which is made out of gravel and finer materials, this keeps moisture on the surface
There aren't very many types of plants in the tundra. Yet they still have a very unique way of survival. They adapt to the permafrost by being short and grouped in the harsh parts of the tundra. Some plant consist of lichen, moss and small shrubs. Even though they have a growing season of 60 days, they still manage to spread out and create a lot of plants. They still have photosynthesis and they get there energy from the sun. Some special traits is they are adapted to low lighting and low temperatures. Very important part of the biome.
The animals here are either birds, insects and mammals. Animals consist of moose, lemmings, caribou, artic hares, polar bears, foxes, wolves, birds and insects. They adapt by breeding and raising there young in the summer and hibernating in the harsh parts of winter. Some animals migrate, so there busy all year. The population bounces around all year. Which means they have to switch up what they hunt most of the year. Owls, polar bears, foxes and wolves are at the top of the food chain. They hunt hares, lemmings, caribous. Some are herbivores so they eat plant, others will also eat insects. Very unique ecosystem.