Key Concept 5.3 The union victory in the civil war and the contested reconstruction of the south settled the issues of slavery and secession, but left unresolved many questions about the power of the federal government and citizenship rights

I. The North's greater man power and industrial resources, the leadership of Abraham Lincoln and others, and the decision to emancipate slaves eventually led to the Union military victory over the Confederacy in the devastating Civil War.

A. Both the Union and the Confederacy mobilized their economies and societies to wage the war even while facing considerable home front opposition. Examples: Suspension of Habeas Corpus (1861), Southern Conscription Act (1862), Northern Conscription Act (1863), NYC Draft riots (1863), Copperheads, and Order of the Sons of Liberty (1864)

B. Lincoln and most Union supporters began the Civil War to preserve Union, but Lincoln's decision to issue the Emancipation Proclamation reframed the purpose of the war and helped prevent the Confederacy from gaining diplomatic support from European powers. Many African Americans fled southern plantations and enlisted in the Union Army, helping to undermine the Confederacy.

C. Lincoln sought to reunify the country and used speeches such as the Gettysburg Address to portray the struggle against slavery as the fulfillment of America's founding democratic ideals. Examples: "All men are created equal." "This nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom."




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