Ottoman Empire By Johnson Kao

The Ottoman Empire was absolutely monarchy during much of its existence. The empire started in the period of great expansion and has developed a advanced organization of states over the centuries. It had a very stable government with the Sultan as the supreme ruler. The organization of the Ottoman Empire is a system with two main dimensions, the military admistration and civil organization. The Ottoman Sultan or "lord of the kings" was the highest position in the system and was considered to be the idea of the government.

The Ottoman Empire legal systems is based on the sharia (Islamic law) and the fundamental religious concept of Islam. Parliament had the rights to legislate, but the sultan himself can legislate by order and often did so.

Economics

Agriculture in the Ottoman Empire had rich land and could produce goods. Fertiity of soil in some areas was well and rich, but most common soil in some area wasn't great due to lack of rainfalls. Since crops didn't always suceed and people couldn't depend on crops, they began to raise animals. In the middle ages, Ottomans controlled all the trade between the East and the West and traded spices, silk, tea, and alot of other stuff. Turkish cuisine is largely a heritage of Ottoman cuisine. The Ottomans mostly consumed bakery products, dishes, sweets and pickles. Their beverages consisted of sherbet, lemonade, and coffee. There is not a record about alcoholic beverages because they were not considered legal from the perspectives of Ottoman religon and laws.

During the Ottoman empire, slaves were used as labor and was a legal and significant part of their economy and society.

Social

Customs

Circumcision Ceremonies is widely practiced in all Islamic countries and is a traditional act. circumcision is cutting off the foreskin of a young boy as a religious rite as a medical treatment. These festivities took place in the Ottoman palace. During the festivities, between 3,000 and 10,000 boys of poor families were circumsized by the surgeons.

During the Ottoman empire, there were a bunch of marriages such as marriage among relatives like cousins, was common in turkey. The traditional setting, wedding ceremonies generally start on Tuesdays and end on Thursday. The night before the wedding is set aside for the bride to spend her last night at her family's home. The next day, guests fetches the bride to the groom's house.

Education

In the past, education in the Ottoman empire was mostly in the hands of men of religion. In primary elementary schools, they was to teach reading and writing and to have them learn about basic Islamic religion. There were boarding schools for poor childrens. Students were selected to attend the palace school completing at least 8 years of highschool education. All the students in the palace would go on and become the most respected officials in the empire.

Classes/Groups

The Ottoman empire was dominated by the Turks but also included Arabs, Kurds, Greeks, Armenians, and other ethnic minorties. In the Ottoman empire, your place in hierarchy was based on your skills, although it did help to know people of higher power. Power of Sultan was based on birth. The Sultan had a number of advisors and ministers. The most powerful was the Vizers of the Divan, which is a council where the Vizers met and discuss politics. The Vizer were really the servants of the Sultan, but they had their own advisers called Kahya. Ottoman empire consisted of four social classes; Men of the pen: highly educated; scientists,lawyers, judges and doctors. Men of the sword: military personnel. Men of negotiation: merchants, artisans and tax collectors. Men of husbandry: farmers and herders.

Religion

Birth and death

Babies undergo a practice when they are born by washing their body and put salt on it to get rid of smell, smear honey on its mouth so its speech can be sweet and beautiful, and cut the umbilical cord.

The Ottomans shared the idea of death and afterlife. They considered death not to be an end, but the beginning of afterlife, which is permanent and eternal. The dead is to wait in the grave until Judgement Day where souls undergo the final test. Then the outcome would decide the placing of the soul, paradise or hell.

Sufferings

The war environment during the ottoman empire involved infectious diseases. The empire combated diseases because of the Balkan wars and afterwards the first world war. Migrations after Balkan war spread epidemic diseases and malaria began to spread in civilian arean and even the military. Population fell from power and 412,000 soldiers caught malaria and 20,000 died because of it.

The Ottoman Empire made significant advances in science and technology, in a range of fields including mathematics, astronomy and medicine.

Cosmetology of ancient times

Art

In the early Ottoman periods, surviving buildings from Byzantine, Mamluk, and Persian traditions form Ottoman's artistic vocabulary. Like the great Byzantine church was turned into imperial mosque and became a source of inspirations for the Ottomans. The Ottomans turned other palaces into mosque complex (muslim place of worship) to combine religious, educational, social, and commercial functions. They also made paintings and calliigraphy which was greatly loved and respected by the Ottoman Turks.

Music

The most popular music during the Ottoman Empire is classical music which acommpanies a solo singer with a small instrumental group. They used violins, end brown flute, unfretted lute, plucked zither, and drums

During the Ottoman empire, dancing was a form of entertainment both at court and among ordinary people. Their dance traditions have not survived until the present day and information about them is mainly from drawings and paintings.

Credits:

Created with images by Jorge Lascar - "The 30.6m ⌀ dome and the chandeliers with Islamic patterns - Hagia Sophia" • terimakasih0 - "coins cash money" • AliceKeyStudio - "book screen climate" • VinothChandar - "Holy Week @ Santhome Basilica, Chennai (HDR)" • Pexels - "altar ancient architecture"

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