Southern Africa Pages 377-396

land forms and bodies of water

  • The cape cod of good hope is at the southern tip of the continent is considered the place where two oceans meet.
  • Angola and South Africa are each nearly the size of Western Europe.
  • Madagascar occupies the worlds fourth largest island.


  • The Kalahari desert in South Africa is a vast, sand covered plateau that sits some 3,000 feet above sea level.
  • In South Africa theirs a series of high plateaus that range in elevation from 3,000 feet to 6,000 feet.
  • The Kalahari Desert is a vast, sand-covered plateau that sits some 3,000 feet above sea level

Bodies of water

  • The Zambezi
  • Limpopo
  • Orange river

question: "Which type OF land form is common in Southern Africa" : Plateaus


  • Southern Africa has a wide variety of climates, ranging from humid to arid to hot to cool
  • Each area gets as much as 70 inches of rain per year.
  • Daily average temperatures range from the upper 60s to the upper 70s

Temperatures zones

  • South Africa, Central Namibia, Eastern Botswana, and Southern Mozambique have temperature, or moderate, climates that are not marked by extremes of temperature.
  • annual rainfall varies from 8 inches in some areas up to 24 inches.
  • Most of the rain falls during the summer, with very little the rest of the year.

Desert regions

  • Temperatures along the coast are mild, however, with daily averages ranging from 48 to 68.
  • In winter, freezing temperatures sometimes occur.
  • The Kalahari's also gets a little more precipitation than the Namib

Question:“Why are temperatures in Southern Africa’s tropical countries generally not hot?”

Anwser: because of the way the climate changes

Question: “What natural resources are found in Southern Africa, and why are they important?”

Answer: platinum, chromium, and gold.

south Africa's resources

  • the Republic of South Africa has some of the largest mineral reserves in the world. Its is the worlds largest producer of platinum, chromium, and gold, and one of the worlds largest producers of diamonds.
  • Those recourse's, along with copper, and other minerals, have created a thriving mining industry.
  • That industry has attracted workers and investments from other country's that have helped South Africa's industries grow.

Sentence #1

Its is the worlds largest producer of platinum, chromium, and gold, and one of the worlds largest producers of diamonds.

sentence #2

Those recourse's, along with copper, and other minerals, have created a thriving mining industry.

energy recources

  • The Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Mozambique mine and burn coal from their own deposits to produce most of their electric power.
  • Mozambique has large deposits of natural gas as well, as does Angola.
  • The regions rivers are another recourse for providing power.

sentence #1

The Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Mozambique mine and burn coal from their own deposits to produce most of their electric power.

sentence #2

Mozambique has large deposits of natural gas as well, as does Angola.

minerals and other resources

  • Namibia is one of Africa's richest countries in mineral resources
  • One of the leading exports for Zimbabwe is gold.
  • Malawi's most important natural resources natural resource is its fertile soil. .

sentence #1

Mozambique has the worlds largest supply of the rare metal tantalite.

sentence #2

Exporting farm products is also a major economic activity in Zimbabwe.


  • Wildbeests, lions, zebras, giraffes, and many other animals are found across the region of South Africa.
  • Tourists come throughout the world to see these animals, poaching, or illegally killing game, is a problem.
  • They live within and outside the many national parks and wildlife reserves.

sentence #1

Southern Africa is known for its variety of animal life.

Question #4

“How does deforestation affect the energy supply in the region?”

South Africa has the largest producer of tin, zinc, copper, gold, silver, and uranium.

lesson #2

History of Southern Africa - Rise of Kingdoms

  • Southern Africa's indigenous people have inhabited the region for thousands of years.

Great Zimbabwe

  • Great Zimbabwe was the largest of many similar cities throughout the region.
  • The capital city Zimbabwe means "stone houses".

The Mutapa Empire

  • In the late 1400s, the Shona conquered the region between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers.
  • The Portuguese arrived and took over the coastal trades in the 1500s

other kingdoms

  • A serisesof kingdoms rose and fell on the island of Madagascar from the 1600s to 1800s.
  • Shaka was killed in 1828.

European colonies

  • the first settlements were trading posts and supply stations at which ships could stop on their way to and from Asia.

clashes in south Africa

  • The Africans did not like the dutch pushing into their land, and soon they started fighting over it.

the union of south Africa

  • Wars in Europe gave Britain control of the Cape Colony in the early 1800s.

colonialism in other areas

  • In Southern Africa, Britain gained control over what is now Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Botswana.

“Which European country claimed the most territory in Southern Africa in the 1800's?” Madagascar

independence and equal rights

  • French rule in Madagascar ended in 1960, making it the first Southern African country to gain independence

The end of Portuguese rule

  • Portugal refused to give up their colonies, while other European nations did

the birth of Zimbabwe

  • After granting Malawi and Zambia independence, Britain prepared to free neighboring Zimbabwe, then called Southern Rhodesia.

equal rights in south Africa

  • English South Africans controlled the government until the end of World War 2
  • After independence, the growth of South Africa's mining and other industries depended on the labor of black Africans.
  • By the 1970's, apartheid- related events in South Africa had gained world attention.

lesson #3

the people of the region

  • the largest white minority is in the country of South Africa, where whites represent 10 percent of the population.

population patterns

  • Fewer then than 2 million people live in the small countries of Lesotho and Swaziland.
  • Population depends heavily on geography and economics.
  • South Africa, the regions most industrialized nation, has three times as many people.

ethnic and culture groups

  • About 4 million Tswana form the major population group Botswana.
  • Group's like the Chewa, Tsonga, Ambo, and San illustrate an important point about Southern Africa's history
  • South Africa's 9 million Zulu make up that country's largest ethnic group.

religion and languages

  • Southern Africa's colonial past also influenced its people's religious beliefs.
  • In Zimbabwe and Swaziland , a blend of Christianity and traditional religious beliefs is followed by about half the population.

“What is the main religion practiced in Southern Africa?” Christianity

life in southern africa

  • As in other regions of Africa, life differs from city to countryside.

urban life

  • South Africa has 4 cities-- Durban, Ekurhuleni, Cape Town, and Johannesburg-- with populations of around 3 million or more.

urban growth and change

  • The region's cities have a mix of many ethnic groups.
  • The rapid growth of some cities has strained public utilities.
  • Indians, Filipinos, Malays, and Chinese live mainly in the townships.

family and traditional life

  • People who move to the cities must adjust to new experiences and a different way of life.
  • Rural villages are often small- consisting of perhaps 20 or 30 houses.

“Where in their countries do most Southern Africans live?” in the city.

southern Africa today

  • Southern Africa's wealth of mineral, wildlife, and other resources may be the key to its future.

health issues

  • Life expectancy in Southern Africa is low, in the majority of the countries, most people do not live beyond the age of 50 to 55.


  • Malaria, a tropical disease carried by mosquitoes, is a problem in several countries.
  • Southern Africa has some of the highest rates of infant death in the world.
  • A major cause of death in children and adults is HIV/AIDS.

progress and growth

  • Angola and Mozambique continue to rebuild the cities and towns, industries, railroads, and communications systems that have been damaged or destroyed by years of civil war.
  • Tourism at national parks has grown with the establishment of stable, democratic governments.

help from other countries

  • The United States has used economic aid to strengthen democracy in Southern Africa.
  • Other U.S programs have provided billions of dollars to pay for medications and care for AIDS suffers and AIDS orphans.

“Why is life expectancy in Southern Africa so low?”because disease's are so common, normal people don't make it to 50-55 years old


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