Matter is a physical substance in general, as distinct from mind and spirit; (in physics) that which occupies space and possesses rest mass, especially as distinct from energy. So pretty much matter is anything that takes up space. There are two categories of matter. You have pure substances and mixtures.
Pure substance is defined as substances that are made of only one type of atom or only one type of molecule (a group of atoms bonded together). For example a pure substance can be water, sugar, salt, or baking soda. A pure substance is made up of two things elements and compounds. An element is each of more than one hundred substances that cannot be chemically interconverted or broken down into simpler substances and are primary constituents of matter. Each element is distinguished by its atomic number, i.e., the number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms. For example a element could be phosphorus or sulfur . A compound is a thing that is composed of two or more separate elements; a mixture. Don't get a mixture and a compound mixed up there is a difference. The difference is a mixture is the result of combining two or more substances that do not react chemically. In order for a solution or combination to be labelled as a mixture, it must be possible to separate the individual components through physical means, without resorting to chemical reactions. For example a compound might be Octane - Formula: C8H18 = Carbon8 + Hydrogen18.
The next part of matter is a mixture which has different parts that make up a mixture which are heterogeneous and homogeneous. A mixture is something made up of more than one thing and you can sort through it or pick things out. For example a salad or pizza could be a mixture. A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture that composes of components that aren't uniform or they have localized regions that all have different properties. Despite the term appearing to be highly scientific, there are various common substances that are heterogeneous. For example Emulsion is a heterogeneous mixture that involves the combining of two liquids. Then you have a homogeneous mixture a mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout. For example, air is a homogeneous mixture of gases.
Now, we are gonna talk a little bit about a solution. A solution is a liquid mixture in which the minor component (the solute) is uniformly distributed within the major component (the solvent). For example-
When you talk about heterogeneous mixtures there are two categories that follow. Suspension and colloids. Suspension is a mixture in which particles are dispersed throughout the bulk of a fluid. a suspension is a mixture of two or more substances. In a suspension, very small pieces of solid are spread through a liquid but do not dissolve. If left still, the solid pieces will separate from the liquid and either fall to the bottom or rise to the top. Sand in water is a suspension. Suspensions may separate quickly or stay suspended for a long time, depending on what they contain.
A colloid is a substance that has large molecules or ultramicroscopic particles of one substance dispersed through a second substance. These molecules in this substance can't be filtered out or anything. For example a colloid is whipped cream, mayonnaise, milk, butter, gelatin, jelly, muddy water, plaster, colored glass, and paper.