Coniferous Forest Norway Vincent Naticchione

What is a Coniferous Forest?

A coniferous forest is a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summer and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest.

Climate of the forest in Norway

Average Rainfall- 16 Inches per year. Max rainfall per year: 20 inches. Min rainfall per year: 12 inches.

Average Temperature- Summer: 57.2 degrees fahrenheit. Winter: 14 degrees fahrenheit.

Max Temperature- 70 degrees fahrenheit, Min Temperature- -40 degrees fahrenheit.

Summer daytime temperatures are typically cool while in winter the temperature can get very cold (as low as -40 degrees fahrenheit).

Net Primary Productivity

The Net Primary Productivity of Coniferous Forests are 3,500 kilocalories per square meter every year which is in about the middle of the list regarding Net Primary Productivity. The Biomes with more include Tropical Rainforests, Estuaries, Swamps and marshes, and Temperate Forests. The growing season in Coniferous forests is less than 120 days compared to tropical rainforests which is 365 days and the Temperate Forest is more than 120 days. Regarding rainfall Coniferous forests get 12-33 inches of rain per year which is an average amount compared to the other biomes. Coniferous forests also make up 22 percent of Earths land surface which is second most on this list. Coniferous Forests are found on the 60 degree latitude. Coniferous forests are known to be very diverse as there are many different species of trees, plants, and wildlife that live there.

Soil Quality

The light colored usually acidic soils of coniferous forests are called podzols and have a compacted humus layer, known as mor, which contains many fungi. These soils are low in mineral content, organic material, and number of invertebrates such as earthworms. This coniferous forest is not a good place for farming since the soil has very little nutrients.

Invasive and Endangered

Endangered Grizzly Bear

The Grizzly Bear has become endangered in coniferous forests because of hunting and deforestation. Grizzly Bears are being hunted for their meat and fur. Also trees are being cut down at an extremely alarming rate which makes it hard for Bears to stay away from Humans hunting them. In some regions of boreal forests, trees are lost at the same rates of trees in rainforests. People don't want these bears to go extinct but by hunting them and cutting down trees people are causing them to go extinct.

Hippco

Habitat Destruction- Yes. These Grizzly Bears are suffering from deforestation.

Invasive Species- There is not an invasive species affecting the Grizzly Bear.

Population- Estimated only 1,800 Grizzly Bears left in the world.

Pollution- The animal is not suffering because of pollution.

Climate Change- The animal is not suffering from climate change.

Overharvesting- Grizzly Bears are being hunted for their furs and meat which is putting them into endangerment.

Other Endangered Species in Coniferous Forests

Wolverine
Woodland Caribou
Whooping Crane

Invasive Gray Squirrel

The Gray squirrel is originally from the United States but in 1948 entered the ecosystem in coniferous forests in Europe such as in Norway. The gray squirrel is severely damaging certain species like the red squirrel who is a native to the area. These Gray Squirrels are taking the Red Squirrels resources. Also Gray squirrels spread Squirrel Pox which is a highly contagious disease.

Other Invasive Species in Coniferous forests

English Ivy
English Holly
European Starling

Animals in the Biome

Fox

Grow dense winter coats when it gets cold to stay warm. Long slender legs which make them quick so they can catch prey.

Lynx

Long thick fur that keeps them warm during the winter. They also have wide paws that act as snowshoes.

Moose

They survive in this biome because they have plenty of food and when it gets cold they eat mosses, lichens, and bark. Their coats have unique warming features that they would not be able to survive without in the winter.

Trees/Plants in the Biome

Hemlock Trees

Have thick waxy needles that prevent water from evaporating.

Spruces

A spruce tree has needles to retain heat, shed snow, and lose less water.

Pine Tree

Pine needles with their small surface area, reduce water loss through transpiration. Pine needles also have a waxy coating that protects them from drying winds and small amounts of sap that can otherwise freeze.

Credits:

Created with images by Unsplash - "forest trees trees pine trees" • ArthurTopham - "grizzly bear wildlife bear" • Mr Moss - "Wolverine" • Just a Prairie Boy - "Woodland Caribou" • USFWS Headquarters - "Whooping Crane (Grus americana)" • Bobolink - "Gray Squirrel_3925" • oatsy40 - "Ivy" • markus spiske - "christmas holly fir tree decoration" • PublicDomainPictures - "bird jackdaw corvus" • Pexels - "animal animal photography blur" • skeeze - "lynx bobcat wildlife" • Unsplash - "moose water forest" • Pexels - "adventure boots conifers" • JefferyTurner - "Spruce Knob, West Virginia" • skeeze - "snow forest winter"

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