Manifest Destiny Pages 345-367

Rivalry in the Northwest

  • The Oregon Country was a huge area located north of California, between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
  • The region included all of what are now Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. It also included about half of what is now the Canadian province of British Columbia.

Adams-Onis Treaty

  • Many Americans wanted control of Oregon in order to gain access to the Pacific Ocean.
  • In 1819 Secretary of State John Quincy Adams got Spain to approve the Adams-Onis Treaty.

Mountain Men in Oregon

  • Fur traders had been the first Americans to take up the challenge of living in the Oregon Country.
  • Many Native Americans had wive and they lived in buffalo-skin lodges and dressed in fringed buckskin pants, moccasins, and beads.
  • Overtime mountain men could no longer make a living by trapping.
What did America gain from the Adams-Onis Treaty?
They gained control of Oregon.

Oregon and Manifest Destiny

  • Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife Narcissa were missionaries who went to Oregon in 1836 and built a mission among the Cayuse people near the present site of Walla Walla, Washington.
  • The new settlers unknowingly brought measles to the mission.

Along the Oregon Trail

  • The Whitman massacre was a shocking event, but it did little to stop the flood of pioneers on their way to Oregon.
  • In 1843 about a thousand emigrants made the journey and tenns of thousands more would follow in the years ahead.
  • Gathering in Independence of other towns in Missouri, the pioneers followed the Oregon Trail across the Great Plains, along the Platte River, and through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains.

America Seeks Its Manifest Destiny

  • Since colonial times, many Americans had believed their nation's mission should be to serve as a model of freedom and democracy.
  • May believed that the nation's mission was to spread freedom by settling the entire continent.
  • O'Sullivan declared it was America's "Manifest Destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us."

'Fifty-Four Forty or Fight'

  • Many Americans wanted the United States to take over all of Oregon.
  • Democrats used the slogan "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight," referring to the line of latitude they believed should be the nation's northern border in Oregon.
  • They set the border at 49 degrees N latitude, it was the boundary the British had rejected 21 years before.
How did Pol's views differ from Clay's in the 1844 election?
Polk won the election because Whig support was not united behind Clay.
How did Florida become a state?
Spain transferred Florida to the United States.


  • Florida had an appointed territorial governor, a territorial legislature, and a nonvoting delegate to the United States Congress.
  • Not counting Native Americans, fewer than 8,000 people lived in the territory, including enslaved people.
  • Many planters from Virginia, Georgia, and the Carolina's had worn out their soil with years of heavy years.

The Territory Grows

  • In 1837 the census for the territory of Florida reported that 48,000 people lived there.
  • Florida voters chose 56 people to attend the constitutional convention in St. Joseph, a small port city on the Gulf Coast.

Statehood for Florida

  • Iowa finally emerged as a free state candidate, president John Tyler signed the Florida statehood bill.
What caused the population of Florida to grow?
The farmers from the northern states left so they could farm in the fertile soil of Florida.


  • In 1821 Mexico won independence from Spain.
  • Tensions with Mexico developed when Americans refused to follow Mexico's rules.
  • In 1835 the conflict grew violent, Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna took an army into Texas to punish the rebels.

The Alamo

  • The Texans had only about 180 soldiers to take on Santa Anna's army of several thousand.
  • For 13 long days, through several attacks, the defenders of the Alamo kept Santa Anna's army at bay with rifle fire.
  • The Mexican army was too large to hold back, they entered the fortress, killing all the defenders, including Travis, Crockett, Bowie, and a number of Tejanos.

Texas Declares Its Independence

  • During the siege at the Alamo, Texan leaders met at the town of Washington-on-the-Brazos.
  • Texan leaders set up a temporary government and it named Sam Houston commander in chief of the Texan forces.

The Lone Star Republic

  • In September 1836, Texans elected Sam Houston as their president.
  • Houston sent a delegation to Washington, D.C., to ask the United States to annex, or take control of Texas.

Texas Becomes a State

  • Southerners favored Texas annexation, but northerners opposed admitting another slave state to the Union.
  • After Polk won, Congress passed a resolution to annex Texas.
Why did it take a long time for the United States to annex Texas?
Because Mexico owned it and they didn't want to give it up.

War With Mexico

How did the Santa Fe Trail benefit the New Mexico Territory?
The trail was mostly flat so people could use wagons to transport goods.

The New Mexico Territory

  • Mexico--including New Mexico--won its independence from Spain in 1821.
  • William Becknell was the first American trader to reach Santa Fe in 1821.
  • The Santa Fe Trail started near Indepence, Missouri, which was then on the western edge of the United States.
How did William Bechnell influence the American settlement of New Mexico?
Becknell used wagons to transport his goods, and other Americans soon followed and used the trail for trading and then began started settling.

California's Spanish Culture

  • Spanish explorers and missionaries from Mexico settled California in the 1700's.
  • The missions aimed to convert Native Americans to Christianity and the Spanish way of life.

Conflict Begins

  • President James K> Polk was determine to get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico.
  • Relations between the two countries were not friendly, the two nations disagreed about where the Texas-Mexico border was.
  • Polk sent a representative, John Slidell, to Mexico to propose a deal.

A War Plan

  • Polk planned to defeat Mexico by accomplishing three goals.
  • By 1847, Zachary Taylor had accomplished the first of Polk's goals.

California's Uprising

  • Even before the war actually begin, Americans settlers in northern California had begun an uprising.
  • The settlers had little trouble overcoming the weak official Mexican presence in the territory.

Peace Terms

  • Defeated on February 2, 1848, Mexico's leaders signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
  • Mexico gave the United Sates more than 500,000 square miles of territory, what are now states of California, Nevada, and Utah, as well as most of Arizona and New Mexico and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
What did America gain from the Mexican War?
They gained more then 500,000 square miles of territory which is now states of California, Utah, and Nevada, most of New Mexico and Arizona, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado.
How did the discovery of gold help California?
People from all across the world came to California to search for gold.

California Gold Rush

  • People from all across the world came to California to search for gold.
  • Americans made up about 80% of the forty-niners.

The Californios

  • The land Law of 1851 established a group of reviewers who examined the Californios' rights.

The Life of a Forty-Niner

  • People rushed to a new area to look for gold, they built new communities.
  • Most forty-niners had no experience in mining.

Gold Rush Society

  • Mining camps contained men of all backgrounds, but few women.

Economic and Political Progress

  • The gold rush had lasting effects on California.
  • Many people who came to look
How did the California Gold Rush lead to the expansion of cities?
When someone had a need, someone would open a business for that need.

A Religious Refuge in Utah

  • While the Gold Rush was transforming California, change was also taking place in nearby Utah.

The Mormons Move On

  • The founder of the Mormon Church was Joseph Smith, a New Englander living in western New York.
  • Smith published "The Book of Mormon" in 1830, announcing that it was a translation of words written on golden plates that he had received from an angel.
  • Smith formed a community in New York, but neighbors disapproved of the Mormons' religion and forced them to leave.

A Haven in the Desert

  • The Mormon migration began in 1846.
  • The Mormons reached the Great Salt Lake in 1847.
  • By 1860 there were many Mormon communities, but Utah was not easily incorporated into the United States.
Why did the Mormons have to keep moving from one place to another?
They were trying to find a religious freedom so they kept moving to find a place where they could settle. Every time they would try to settle and practice their religion, people would run them off.


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