The Great Barrier Reef By Nikita Causley

Place and space

The Great Barrier Reef is located in Queensland, Australia.(north- eastern coast.) The Great Barrier Reef stretches for 2,300km along Queensland's coast line. It starts at the tip of Cape York and continues until it reaches Bundaberg. The Great Barrier Reef has a latitude of -18.156290 and a longitude of 147.485962.

https://reefexperience.com.au/tour-information/great-barrier-reef/. https://www.skyrail.com.au/visitor-information/cairns/great-barrier-reef. http://www.kidcyber.com.au/great-barrier-reef/

Indigenous siGnificance

The Great Barrier Reef has significance to indigenous people because of its natural resources. Ingenuous people did a lot of fishing, trading and hunting in The Great Barrier Reef with other Aboriginal communities. They mainly survived on plants, animals and the environment for their food. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have a continuing relationship with The Great Barrier Reef and its natural resources. Each Aboriginal group has its distinctive culture and rituals. The Aboriginal dreaming stories for The Great Barrier Reef is that their ancestors lives on the coastal plains on the continental shaft. This area was covered with the last sea rise and this is what formed The Great Barrier Reef from over 1,500 years ago.

http://www.qhatlas.com.au/content/visiting-great-barrier-reef

The Great Barrier Reef also has a great significance to the Australian community in general because it is a big part of Australia. It was announced that it is a world heritage area in 1981 and it is the marine authority's job to protect it. The Great Barrier Reef has suffered pollution and damage from human activity. The Australian community are trying really hard to keep it clean and the Reef healthy.

Environment

https://www.qld.gov.au/environment/agriculture/sustainable-farming/reef-protection/

The Great Barrier Reef has lots of underwater vegetation and it is one of the planets richest ocean habitats in the world. It is home to lots of endangered animals

https://au.pinterest.com/visitqueensland/great-barrier-reef/

It is home to over 2,900 different coral reefs and over 600 idyllic islands. It has billions of little minislule animals also known as coral. The Great Barrier Reef is home to creatures like plankton and as big as whales that weigh over one hundred tonnes. It is estimated that 10% of the fish in the world live in the Great Barrier Reef and it has lots of different types of species.

http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/about-the-reef/facts-about-the-great-barrier-reef

Corals

https://www.thesun.co.uk/living/2211006/where-is-the-great-barrier-reef-coral-bleaching-severe/

As mentioned The Great Barrier Reef has lots of different kinds of corals and underwater sea grass but there are two main types of coral. Hard coral and soft coral.

Hard coral- Is also known as stony coral. It is made up of skeletons from other corals that produce limestone to support themselves with. These skeletons are either living or dead corals. This is a way that the Reef is made. Hard coral have normally six tentacles or smooth branches. The main hard coral that is found in The Great Barrier Reef is brain coral and stag-horn coral.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_coral
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staghorn_coral

Soft coral- Soft coral is called soft coral because it is flexible and hasn't got any skeletons in it. Soft coral is held up by little spikes called spinucles which help hold them up and support them. Soft coral is usually more brightly coloured than hard coral tending to be bright pinks and mauves which aren't really seen much in the Reef. Soft coral usually has eight tentacles, two more than hard corals. Soft corals also have a kind of spongy texture.

http://news.scubatravel.co.uk/soft-coral-is-reef-building.html
http://www.seasky.org/sea-gallery/sea-gallery-01-25.html

Animals

http://www.greatbarrierreef.com.au/animals/

The Great Barrier Reef is home to marine animals such as whales, dolphins and seals. Birds, seabirds and shorebirds. Six different types of turtles from around the world. Crocodiles, sea snakes, fishes, sharks and rays. Echinodermata (starfishes), crustaceans ( crabs and prawns), molluscles ( clams, oysters, squid, octopus, cuttlefish), sea anemones, jellyfish and sponges.

Bottlenose dolphins, humpback and dwarf minke wales are most commonly seen in The Great Barrier Reef and the most reported on. The humpback whale has been listed as a vulnerable species and over thirty species of whales and dolphins are found in The Great Barrier Reef heritage area. The bottlenose dolphin, humpback and dwarf minke whales are the most frequently seen in that area.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bottlenose_dolphin https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humpback_whale http://www.minkewhales.com.au/Minke_whale_FAQ.html

There are 22 seabirds species that breed along the islands of The Great Barrier Reef.

http://thegreatreef.weebly.com/faunaflora.html http://www.birdsinbackyards.net/birds/featured/Seabirds
https://www.flickr.com/photos/leonardlow/340772102 http://www.greatbarrierreefs.com.au/all-marine-life/turtles/ http://www.lovethesepics.com/2011/10/beyond-gorgeous-great-barrier-reef-46-pics/ http://www.lizasreef.com/HOPE%20FOR%20THE%20OCEANS/coral_reef_ecology.htm

The surrounding landscape

The Great Barrier Reef is The Coral Sea that stretches from the coast of Queensland. It has got a lot of shoreline and pristine beaches and crystal clear water. The Great Barrier Reef is surrounded by The Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean.

http://www.keyword-suggestions.com/ZnVsbCBoZCBiZWFjaCB3YWxscGFwZXI/
http://blog.queensland.com/2012/11/22/kayaking-great-barrier-reef/
http://uniqueenviromentsinaustralia.weebly.com/the-great-barrier-reef.html

Climate

The climate of The Great Barrier Reef has a tropical and very warm climate. The average temperature in the summer time or the dry season is between 24 and 33 degrees and during the winter time it still really hot with temperatures between 14 to 26 degrees.

https://sites.google.com/site/tripforgreynomands/locations/great-barrier-reef

The Great Barrier Reef is a natural built environment with nothing being man made. The Reef is made up of lots and lots of coral polyps. The Great Barrier Reef has been listed as the several natural wonder of the world.

How has the Great Barrier Reef been challenged over time?

http://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-great-barrier-reef-not-dead-20161014-snap-story.html

The Great Barrier Reef has been challenged overtime from the different climate change. The hundreds of reefs in The Great Barrier Reef are very vulnerable. The Reef has had a lot of coral bleaching which is making the coral go white and it is starting to die. This happens because of the climate change. The circulation patterns of the water in the ocean made the temperature increase which leads to the coral bleaching. The Great Barrier Reef has also gone through farm pollution. Farm pollution is when it smothers the coral and blocks the sunlight out. It also smothers the seagrass beds. This is one of the reasons why The Great Barrier Reef has slowly started to decay. Fishing is also a big thing happening in The Great Barrier Reef. Recreational and Ingenious fishing is thretning some of the fish species making them endangered. The Great Barrier Reef has also had a lot of poor water quality from farm pollution and is trying to restore its health.

https://www.emaze.com/@ACZZZWFQ/Presentation-Name

Interconnection and sustainability

Tourism is a big thing for The Great Barrier Reef being one of Australia's biggest tourist destination. Tourists bring in over 4.228 billion dollars with a range of things to do like tours, glass boat tours, snorkelling and much more. However The Great Barrier Reef has had a lot of pollution and it has suffered from that but one big concern is the wetlands. The wetlands have decreased by fifty percent since the European settlement and the a protection program is developing a long term idea to help preserve the wetlands.

http://www.prodijee.com/great-barrier-reef-with-david-attenborough-screens-in-london/

Ways to perseve The Great Barrier Reef for future generations

People are already starting to take action to preserve The Great Barrier Reef. Over the past ten years we have reduced the farming pollution by twenty eight percent making the water much more healthy.

To perserve The Great Barrier Reef people need to reduce the amount of pollution that they are putting into the water. This will help keep the water cleaner and make it more healthier for the animals living in The Great Barrier Reef. We also need to stop the fishing. It is endangering a lot of the fish species and reducing the numbers. Even though a lot of money is brought back from fishing it isn't doing the Reef any good.

https://www.barrierreef.org/

Scale

The Great Barrier Reef is one of the best managed marine pretected area in the world. The Great Barrier Reef a massive area to cover so it needs to be managed properly. A lot of people work together to ensure that all of the rules are followed, that the Reef is healthy and clean and that they are controlling the deadly starfish outbreaks from the climate change. This is important because a lot of people go snorkling and fishing in the Reef and it needs to be safe.

http://theconversation.com/how-scaring-starfish-could-help-to-save-the-great-barrier-reef-36759

Change

As was mentioned the coral bleaching is changing the Reef dramatically as I said earlier. All the coral is losing its colour and its starting to die. This is due to the climate change and the circulation pattern of the water. The corals are very sensitive to the climate change and that is why it is affected. This is also affecting some of the animals because they use the coral as their home, as well as their food and they can't eat the coral if all of is dead, so the fish and animals will reduce in their numbers.

https://www.thesun.co.uk/living/2211006/where-is-the-great-barrier-reef-coral-bleaching-severe/

If the warm temperatures continue for more than a week or so then there could be extensive coral bleaching. If this happens then in the future it may not be a very good tourist destination and it won't be one of Australia's biggest icons anymore because who wants to see dead coral.

Bibliography

Bibliography Animals (2016) Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/about-the-reef/animals (Accessed: 12 April 2017). AustrAliA’s biodiversity and climAte chAnge (2009) Available at: https://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/eab369d6-76f9-46c8-beb4-aaae8ece112e/files/biodiversity-vulnerability-great-barrier-reef.pdf (Accessed: 12 April 2017). Australia’s great natural wonder (no date) Available at: http://www.greatbarrierreef.org (Accessed: 12 April 2017). Climate change impacts on coral reefs (2012) Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/managing-the-reef/threats-to-the-reef/climate-change/what-does-this-mean-for-habitats/coral-reefs (Accessed: 12 April 2017). Climate change impacts on the ocean habitat (2012) Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/managing-the-reef/threats-to-the-reef/climate-change/what-does-this-mean-for-habitats/open-ocean (Accessed: 12 April 2017). Great barrier reef (2016) Available at: http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/great-barrier-reef (Accessed: 12 April 2017). How the reef is managed (2016) Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/managing-the-reef/how-the-reefs-managed (Accessed: 12 April 2017). Landmarks, 2016 A. (2010) The great barrier reef. Available at: http://www.australianlandmarks.com.au/the-great-barrier-reef-australian-landmarks (Accessed: 12 April 2017). Tourism on the great barrier reef (2015) Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/managing-the-reef/how-the-reefs-managed/tourism-on-the-great-barrier-reef (Accessed: 12 April 2017). Tourism and Queensland, E. (2016) Welcome to Queensland, where Australia shines. Available at: http://www.queensland.com (Accessed: 12 April 2017). (No Date) Available at: http://www.greatbarrierreef.org>about-the-reef (Accessed: 12 April 2017). (No Date) Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au>about-the-reef (Accessed: 12 April 2017). Citations, Quotes & Annotations Animals (2016) Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/about-the-reef/animals (Accessed: 12 April 2017). (<i>Animals</i>, 2016) AustrAliA’s biodiversity and climAte chAnge (2009) Available at: https://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/eab369d6-76f9-46c8-beb4-aaae8ece112e/files/biodiversity-vulnerability-great-barrier-reef.pdf (Accessed: 12 April 2017). (<i>AustrAliA’s biodiversity and climAte chAnge</i>, 2009) Australia’s great natural wonder (no date) Available at: http://www.greatbarrierreef.org (Accessed: 12 April 2017). (<i>Australia’s great natural wonder</i>, no date) Climate change impacts on coral reefs (2012) Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/managing-the-reef/threats-to-the-reef/climate-change/what-does-this-mean-for-habitats/coral-reefs (Accessed: 12 April 2017). (<i>Climate change impacts on coral reefs</i>, 2012) Climate change impacts on the ocean habitat (2012) Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/managing-the-reef/threats-to-the-reef/climate-change/what-does-this-mean-for-habitats/open-ocean (Accessed: 12 April 2017). (<i>Climate change impacts on the ocean habitat</i>, 2012) Great barrier reef (2016) Available at: http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/great-barrier-reef (Accessed: 12 April 2017). (<i>Great barrier reef</i>, 2016) How the reef is managed (2016) Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/managing-the-reef/how-the-reefs-managed (Accessed: 12 April 2017). (<i>How the reef is managed</i>, 2016) Landmarks, 2016 A. (2010) The great barrier reef. Available at: http://www.australianlandmarks.com.au/the-great-barrier-reef-australian-landmarks (Accessed: 12 April 2017). (Landmarks, 2010) Tourism on the great barrier reef (2015) Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/managing-the-reef/how-the-reefs-managed/tourism-on-the-great-barrier-reef (Accessed: 12 April 2017). (<i>Tourism on the great barrier reef</i>, 2015) Tourism and Queensland, E. (2016) Welcome to Queensland, where Australia shines. Available at: http://www.queensland.com (Accessed: 12 April 2017). (Tourism and Queensland, 2016) (No Date) Available at: http://www.greatbarrierreef.org>about-the-reef (Accessed: 12 April 2017). ([CSL STYLE ERROR: reference with no printed form.]) (No Date) Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au>about-the-reef (Accessed: 12 April 2017).

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Created with images by Kyle Taylor, Dream It. Do It. - "The Great Barrier Reef - 168"

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