Central Nervous System- Nerve tissues that control the activity of the body. Comprised of the brain and spinal chord.
Peripheral Nervous System- Consists of the nerve tissues outside of the Central Nervous System. Connects the CNS to the limbs and organs, also serving as a relay between the brain, spinal cord and the rest of the body.
Somatic Nervous System- Part of the PNS associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements. Consists of sensory and motor nerves.
Autonomic Nervous System- Responsible for control of the bodily functions not consciously directed, such as breathing and you heartbeat.
Parasympathetic- Consists of nerves coming from the brain and the spinal cord. Supplies the internal organs, blood vessels, and glands.
Sympathetic- Consists of adrenergic fibers and depresses secretion, decreases the contractility of smooth muscle, and increases heart rate.
Sensory Neuron- Responsible for converting external stimuli into internal electrical impulses from the organism's environment.
Interneuron- Transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc.
Motor Neuron- Nerve cell that forms part of a pathway along which impulses pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland.
Neuromuscular Junction- A chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber that helps motor neurons to transmit a signal to the muscle fiber, causing muscle contraction.
Acetylcholine- Functions as a neurotransmitter in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans.
Norepinephrine and epinephrine- Released by the adrenal medulla and nervous system. The flight and fight hormones that are released when the body is under extreme stress.
Synapse- A junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.
White matter- Composed of bundles of myelinated nerve cell projections that carry nerve impulses between neurons.
Gray matter- Contains the cell bodies, dendrites, axon terminals of neurons, and is the location of all the synapses.
Cerebral Cortex- Outer layer of the cerebrum. Composed of folded gray matter. Plays an important role in maintaining consciousness.
Frontal lobe- contains most of the dopamine neurons in the cerebral cortex. Associated with reward, attention, short-term memory tasks, planning, and motivation.
Pariental lobe- Responsible for relaying sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation.
Occipital lobe- Visual processing center of the brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex.
Temporal lobe- Responsible for processing sensory input into derived meanings for the appropriate retention of visual memories and language.
Limbic system- The emotion center of the brain that plays a role in the formation of new memories about past experiences. Location of the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and cingulate gyrus.