Chapter XXIX The Systems of the Body

Central Nervous System- Nerve tissues that control the activity of the body. Comprised of the brain and spinal chord.

Peripheral Nervous System- Consists of the nerve tissues outside of the Central Nervous System. Connects the CNS to the limbs and organs, also serving as a relay between the brain, spinal cord and the rest of the body.

Somatic Nervous System- Part of the PNS associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements. Consists of sensory and motor nerves.

Autonomic Nervous System- Responsible for control of the bodily functions not consciously directed, such as breathing and you heartbeat.

Parasympathetic- Consists of nerves coming from the brain and the spinal cord. Supplies the internal organs, blood vessels, and glands.

Sympathetic- Consists of adrenergic fibers and depresses secretion, decreases the contractility of smooth muscle, and increases heart rate.

Sensory Neuron- Responsible for converting external stimuli into internal electrical impulses from the organism's environment.

Interneuron- Transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc.

Motor Neuron- Nerve cell that forms part of a pathway along which impulses pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland.

Neuromuscular Junction- A chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber that helps motor neurons to transmit a signal to the muscle fiber, causing muscle contraction.

Acetylcholine- Functions as a neurotransmitter in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans.

Norepinephrine and epinephrine- Released by the adrenal medulla and nervous system. The flight and fight hormones that are released when the body is under extreme stress.

Synapse- A junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.

White matter- Composed of bundles of myelinated nerve cell projections that carry nerve impulses between neurons.

Gray matter- Contains the cell bodies, dendrites, axon terminals of neurons, and is the location of all the synapses.

Cerebral Cortex- Outer layer of the cerebrum. Composed of folded gray matter. Plays an important role in maintaining consciousness.

Frontal lobe- contains most of the dopamine neurons in the cerebral cortex. Associated with reward, attention, short-term memory tasks, planning, and motivation.

Pariental lobe- Responsible for relaying sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation.

Occipital lobe- Visual processing center of the brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex.

Temporal lobe- Responsible for processing sensory input into derived meanings for the appropriate retention of visual memories and language.

Limbic system- The emotion center of the brain that plays a role in the formation of new memories about past experiences. Location of the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and cingulate gyrus.

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