Haploid's are half of 46 chromosomes so, they are 23 chromosomes that is because in this chapter we are mainly talking about sex cells and since half your chromosomes are coming from each parent it wouldn't make any sense to have 46 chromosomes in the egg cell and in the sperm cell.
Somatic cells ( they are diploid cells ) that are reproducing contain homologous chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes carry genes one is from the father and one is from the mother of the same characteristics.
Different forms of the exact same gene are called alleles
https://www.thinglink.com/scene/885142009566724096 - for the stages of meiosis