CELL ORGANELLES BY: MADDIE MANTEGANI

NUCLEUS:

-Structure: a spherical organelle bond by a double membrane

-Function: regulate cell activity & store genetic information/DNA

-Organisms Found In: Plants, Animals, Fungi, & Protists

-Prolific In: 1 nucleus is found in every cell

-Diseases: none specific, however mutations within its chromosomes/genes can result in a disease

-Fun Facts: 1st organelle discovered by scientists & takes up 10% of a cell's volume

RIBOSOMES:

-Structure: composed of 2 subunits that are made of RNA & proteins

-Function: translation or the synthesizing of proteins

-Organisms Found In: Bacteria, Plants, Animals, Fungi, & Protists

-Prolific In: equally distributed through all cells

-Diseases: Male Infertility, Alopecia, Glaucoma (& many more)

-Fun Fact: the "rib" in ribosomes comes from ribonucleic acid (RNA) which provides instructions for making proteins

ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM:

-Structure: flat sealed sacs studded with ribosomes

-Function: continue protein assembly & transport of the proteins to the Golgi Apparatus

-Organisms Found In: Plants & Animals

-Prolific In: Liver Cells

-Diseases: Cystic Fibrosis, Emphysema

-Fun Fact: forms hemoglobin with the 4 polypeptide chains it assembles

SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM:

-Structure: tubular sealed sacs

-Function: manufacture lipids, produce hormones, & detoxify organic chemicals

-Organisms Found In: Plants & Animals

-Prolific In: Liver Cells

-Diseases: Liver Disease, Atherosclerosis

-Fun Fact: it has a variation called Sacroplasmic Reticulum

GOLGI APPARATUS:

-Structure: a stack of cisternaes enclosed by a membrane

-Function: modify, sort, & package(in vesicles) macromolecules

-Organisms Found In: Plants & Animals

-Prolific In: Plant Cells

-Diseases: Achondrogenesis, Alzheimers

-Fun Fact: it's the only organelle named after the scientist that discovered it, Camillo Golgi

MITOCHONDRIA:

-Structure: a matrix enclosed by a double membrane

-Function: cellular respiration or the creation of energy/ATP

-Organisms Found In: Plants, Animals, Fungi & Protists

-Prolific In: Muscle Cells

-Diseases: Mitochondrial Myopathy, Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

-Fun Fact: if the cell is lacking energy the mitochondrion will grow and divide to produce more & if the cell has too much energy mitochondrion will die to produce less

CHLOROPLAST:

-Structure: thylakoid stacks enclosed by a double membrane with chlorophyll on the outside of each stack

-Function: photosynthesis or the conversion of light into sugar & energy

-Organisms Found In: Plants & Some Protists (ex. algae)

-Prolific In: Plant Cells

-Diseases: White Phenotypes

-Fun Fact: they're located in mesophyll, which is the green tissue area of leaves

FLAGELLUM:

-Structure: microtubules in a hair or whip like shape

-Function: locomotion of cells/organisms

-Organisms Found In: Bacteria, Animals, Fungi, & Protists

-Prolific In: Bacteria Cells & Male Sperm Cells

-Diseases: Giardiasis, African Sleeping Sickness

-Fun Fact: the flagellum in prokaryotic cells (bacteria) are made of flagellin proteins whereas the flagellum in eukaryotic cells (sperm) are made of tubulin proteins

CILIA:

-Structure: small, slender hair-like protrusions made of microtubules

-Function: locomotion & sensory signals

-Organisms Found In: Animals, Fungi, & Protists

-Prolific In: lungs, respiratory tract, mid-ear, kidney, and eyes

-Diseases: Chronic Respiratory Infections, Infertility, Congenital Heart Defects

-Fun Fact: there are two kinds of cilia, motile and non-motile

LYSOSOMES:

-Structure: tiny sacs with a fluid-enzyme filling

-Function: process nutrients & destroy cell after death

-Organisms Found In: Animals

-Prolific In: White Blood Cells (Phagocytes), Secretory Cells (ex, epithelial cells), & Kidneys

-Diseases: Tay-Sachs Disease, Gangliosidosis

-Fun Fact: lysosome is derived from "lysis", meaning destruction, and "soma", meaning body, so lysosome literally means "destruction body"

FOOD VACUOLE:

-Structure: small membraned structures with fluid center

-Function: temporary food storage for cell

-Organisms Found In: Animals

-Prolific In: equally distributed through all cells

-Diseases: Danon Disease

-Fun Fact: fluid inside the vacuole is called cell sap

CENTRAL VACUOLE:

-Structure: large membraned structure with a fluid center

-Function: storage, structure, support, & turgor maintainence

-Organisms Found In: Plants

-Prolific In: 1 central vacuole is found in every cell

-Diseases: no diseases are affiliated with the central vacuole because it is rigged with disease resisting defense strategies

-Fun Fact: makes up 90% of a mature plant cell

WORKS CITED:

INFORMATION:

Khetrapal, Afsaneh. "Structure and Function of the Cell Nucleus." News-Medical.net. AZO Network, 02 June 2016. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

Davidson, Michael W. "Molecular Expressions Cell Biology: The Cell Nucleus." Molecular Expressions Cell Biology: The Cell Nucleus. N.p., 13 Nov. 2015. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore. "Nucleus structure crucial to understanding diseases discovered." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 February 2013.

Arnold, Paul. "The Structure and Function of Ribosomes: An Amazing Biomolecule Responsible for Making Proteins Within the Cell." Bright Hub. N.p., 13 Mar. 2009. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

Freed, Emily F., Franziska Bleichert, Laura M. Dutca, and Susan J. Baserga. "When Ribosomes Go Bad: Diseases of Ribosome Biogenesis." Molecular BioSystems. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2010. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

"Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough and Smooth)." British Society for Cell Biology. N.p., 19 Nov. 2015. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

"Golgi Apparatus." Golgi Apparatus | Function, Golgi Apparatus Structure | Biology@TutorVista.com. NCS Pearson, 2016. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

"Golgi Apparatus." British Society for Cell Biology. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

"Golgi Body." Organelle Problems. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

Studios, Andrew Rader. "Mitochondria - Turning on the Powerhouse." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Mitochondria. Andrew Rader Studios, n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

Studios, Andrew Rader. "Chloroplasts - Show Me the Green." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Chloroplasts. Andrew Rader Studios, n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

"Flagellum." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

"Phycokey : Anomalies." Phycokey : Anomalies. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

Harris, Tess. "Structure and Function of Cilia." Structure and Function of Cilia. Cilopathy Alliance, 2010-2014. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

"Structure and Functions of Lysosomes." Structure and Functions of. IvyRose Holistic Health, 2003-2016. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

Studios, Andrew Rader. "Vacuoles - Storage Bins to the Cells." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Vacuoles. Andrew Rader Studios, n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

Hatsugai, Noriyuki, and Ikuko Hara-Nishimura. "Two Vacuole-mediated Defense Strategies in Plants." Plant Signaling & Behavior. Landes Bioscience, 05 Dec. 2010. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

IMAGES:

Cover/Closing: Slideplayer

Nucleus: 123RF

Ribosomes: RNA UCSC

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: Plant Cell Biology

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: Wikipedia

Golgi Apparatus: Getty Images

Mitochondria: Biology-About

Chloroplast: Felipe's E-Portfolio

Flagellum: BioLogos

Cilia: American Rhinologic Society

Lysosome: Biology-About

Food Vacuole: Wikibooks

Central Vacuole: Quia

Created By
Madison Mantegani
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