Sudan By Kara-Lynn Marsh

Overhead view of Khartoum
Khartoum at dusk

When talking about location in the terms of geography, location is a physical point on the Earth, usually determined by longitude and latitude lines. Sudan is located in the North east of Africa. Its capital, Khartoum, is exactly located at 15.5007 N, 32.5599 E. Sudan is obviously located in Africa.

Khartoums docks
River that runs through the capital
Overhead veiw of Africa's plains

Background; Nubian Desert

The Marrah Mountains

In Sudan, there are few landforms. Sudan consists of many flat plains, except for The Marrah Mountains, measuring up to ,980 ft. Another known landform of Sudan is the Red Sea Hills.

Sudan has a tropical climate that has little to no humidity. In summer, temperatures can climb up to 110 degrees. Winter is incredibly warm, highest being around 80 degrees. In desert areas, rainfall is not likely. Though near the capital, there is usually only 6.3 inches of rain annually.

Flooding in Sudan
Dried up Nile river in Sudans summertime
Sudan in "Winter" time

Sudan is surrounded by Egypt, Libya, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, South Sudan, and Central African Republic.

Ethiopias capital, Addis Ababa

Sudan has one main waterway, and that's the Nile River. Towards southern Sudan the Nile forks off into the White and Blue Nile. To the east of Sudan is the Red Sea.

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The Red Sea at dusk

Background; Red Sea Hills

Place means that a specific spot is determined by its physical and human characteristics. Sudan has a good amount of natural resources buried in its soil, most of them metals. The most major resource in Sudan is Petroleum.

A machine used for getting petroleum out of the ground

Others are copper, chromium ore, and silver.

Chromium ore
Piece of copper ore

The last major natural resources is mica, tungsten, and zinc.

Flat pieces of Mica
Zinc ore

When it comes to cultural groups in Sudan, there are dozens and dozens of groups. There are the fur people, Toposa, Hedareb, Dinka, Nubians, and Anuaks... that's just to name a few.

Dinka Tribe herding cows
A carving of a Nubian Tribe.
Nuer Tribe. Known for putting shapes in skin

Background; Meroe Ruins

97% of Sudans people practice Islam, making this religion the main religion of Sudan.

Islams symbol

The other 3% is split up into two, 1.5% is Christianity, the other 1.5% is African traditional religion.

Christian church near the capital of Sudan.
Tools used in African Traditonal Religon

There are quite a few holidays and traditions practiced in Sudan, most of them surround their main religon, Islam. A major tradition is Mawlid an-Nabi. This day celebrates the day that the prophet Mohammed was born. This festival starts November 30th and ends December 1st.

The festival of "Mawlid al-Nabi"

Another important day is Eid al-Adha. Eid al-Adha is also called the Feast of Sacrifice. This festival describes how Ibrahim willingly sacrifices his newborn so the Islamic faith can be restored. The festival contains slaughtering animals.

Eid al-Ahda

Another tradition is Sufi Holiya. This festival is a display of brotherhood and praising Sudan saints. People of all social rankings and ethinicites come together in streets and hug and dance.

Music being played at the festival
Sudans flag

Sudan has a presidential system, where the legislative branch is separate from the executive branch. Sudan is a representative democracy, where elected officials represent the country. The current leader of Sudan is Omar al-Bashir, he came to power in 1989. Omar has been accused of war crimes, and considered "a failure of leadership".

Background; Nile River

Human interaction is how humans adapt to their surroundings and how they treat it. Such as what resources they use, don't use, and how they mold their enviroment.

There is a variety when it comes to what grows in Sudan. Sudan is known for growing wheat, corn, rice, beans, chickpeas, groundnuts, sunflowers and in some areas cotton.

Chickpeas
Cotton
Sunflowers

When it comes to jobs in Sudan, it's very similar to ours, though they may not have every single job we have. Teachers for a hire is usually always available in the capital.

Unity Highschool

There's also mining jobs, mainly used to find and dig up gold. Most metals are dug up in the Hassai Gold Mine.

Hassai Gold Mine

There is also a variety of food jobs. There's professionals wedding cake designers, ice cream makers and middle eastern pastry bakers.

Middle Eastern Pastry

Background; Nubian Desert

Sudans animals ranges from ones roaming in the desert to ones grazing in fields. There are some animals though that Sudans people may never see again.

A common Hippopotamus

The hippopotamus can be found in Sudan, usually around rivers and streams. The Hippo is endangered, and are hunted down for their meat and the ivory in their teeth.

Oryx beisa

The next endangered animal is the Oryx Beisa. These animals are hunted down for their unique horns, for being so straight and long.

Giant African Water Shrew

Next is the Giant Water Shrew. The Shrew is endangered because their natural habitats, water ways, are being polluted.

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Sudan is facing quite a few environmental problems, including both man made and natural. Most animals in Sudan are dying due to over hunting, there's soil erosion, desertification, drought, and low supplies of water. Dams have been built in the Nile River to conserve water, along with laws being made for hunting animals.

Background; Meroe Pyramids

Region is a place defined by natural or artificial features, this can include types of government, religon, and wildlife and climate.

Primary Education

Sudans education systems consists of two main parts. First is the primary system. This is basic education that is for ages 6 to 13. The second is secondary system. This is when students are enrolled in high school , for ages 14-17. During this time boys around this age are enrolled as soldiers.

Primary Education
Secondary Education

The population of Sudan is around 37.96 million, with a population density of 21.57 people per square mile. In square miles, the area of Sudan is 728,200 miles. The GDP of Sudan is 1,753.38 USD.

The life expectancy of both males and females who live in Sudan is about 61 years. This is almost 20 years lower than people in the U.S, with expectancy of 79 years.

The literacy rate in Sudan is 70.2% , with males having 79.6% and females having 60.8%.

Sudan has a mixture of climates. In the north it has arid deserts, while in the south it's a tropical climate with rainy seasons. (April to October)

Background; Nile River (Khartoum)

Movement ; How humans interact with each other, share ideas, communicate, and transport goods.

Sudan has a few goods to export to other countries. These goods include oil and petroleum, cotton, livestock, ground nuts, and sugars.

Cotton
Livestock
Sugarcane field
Mining petroleum in Sudan

Transportation in Sudan is similar to the U.S. Their main ways of travel is cars and buses. Some areas use railroad systems to transport people and goods, this is the most profitable way of transport. Some people use lakes and streams to get to where they need to.

A road by the Nile River
A boat sailing across the Nile River
A bus traveling in Sudan

Background; A campsite set up in the Nubian Desert

Sudans Flag

Sudans flag has three vertical lines, one white, one black, and one red. On the left of it there is a green triangle with the top of it pointing to the right.

Sudans flag was created on May 20th, 1970. The flag is similar to other Arab countries flags. Colors in the flag have symbolism, the green being a traditional Islam color, the red socialism, and the white purity and optimism.

Sudan gained independence from Great Britain in 1956. Shortly after though a civil war started that lasted for 17 years. The war started because South Sudan rebels demanded for a better autonomy for Southern Sudan.

Quite a few things were invented in Sudan over recent time, and they were dveveloped quickly. Some of these helpful tools and advancements in technology were built in about six months.

Gum Arabic

One of these tools is Gum Arabic. Gum Arabic comes in two forms. The first is Acacia Senegal and the second kind is Acacia Seyal. Senegal is used as a stabilizer in food and drinks to make them safe to consume. Both of them can be used in paint, glue, and industrial applications.

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Developers in Sudanhave developed many Solar Powered buildings to conserve energy, including community centers.

Usage of Solar Power

Background; Khartoum

Secondary System

It has come to attention that some Sudanese teachers have not been paid since 2012. With this happening, teachers are starting to protest and go on strike. This could effect education badly, ecspecially the secondary system, which has fewer teachers.

A sign protesting

Another problem is about religion. The government in Sudan is "declaring war" against Christianity. They have said that they were "afraid of Muslims finding Jesus". Some Christians in the country have already been arrested for their faith. Other christians have been in jail for destroying a sign of Muslim ownership of a school.

Preists in Sudan

This could easily turn into war, ecspecially when arrests are now common due to someone's religion.

Christian Chruch in Sudan

Background; Small farm in Sudan

Sudan is filled with ancient cites and beautiful traditions. While visiting in Sudan, you can take a look at National Museums, visit Al Ezargab beach, go to the KuKu zoo, and visit the many ruins and pyramids in the Sahara and Nubian deserts.

North of Sudans capital, Khartoum, there is the site of Meroe, where over 40 ancient kings and queens are buried. Their tombs are marked by over 200 hundred pyramids, though these pyramids are not as big as the ones in Egypt, but these are less crowed and is suggested for a good site for a nice postcard.

Meroe Ruins

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In the capital, sight seeing is common. There's the Presidential Palace, Khartoum War Cememtery, a beautiful piece of architecture called the Al Kabir Mosque, and simply taking a stroll down Nile street, also known as "The Attractive Part of Khartoum".

Nile Street
The Al Kabir Mosque
Presidential Palace

Background; Sahara Desert

Sudanese teenagers do go to school, from the age of 6 to 17. School days lasts from about 8:00am to almost 4:00pm, which is 8 hours! They have two break periods though, each lasting 15 minutes. Lunch is at noon, they have 30 minutes to eat.

Kids in Sudan

In Sudan, some teenagers may look for an after school job, a popular job is babysitting. Fun in Sudan is usually associated with sports. Track and running is common, as well as volleyball, handball, and football. (Soccer)

Kids getting ready to run the track

Traditional music to listen to In Sudan can range, a popular one being Southern Sudan Folk Music, Northern Sudanese lyrical music, and modern Tribe music. Out of modern music, Hip Hop is loved by many.

Older male teenagers wear long, loose pastel or white colored robes with a short, thin scarf and skullcap. The light colors of the robe helps to keep out the heat, reduce sweating, and allows the skin to breathe.

Women in Sudan wear a "wrap around" that wraps around the blouse and skirt of the woman. This covers the entire body, and can be in many beautiful patterns and colors. Young teens usually wear white ones.

Background ; Nile River

Thank You.

Credits:

Created with images by D-Stanley - "Nubian Desert" • Christopher.Michel - "Khartoum, Sudan" • Christopher.Michel - "Khartoum, Sudan" • Christopher.Michel - "Khartoum, Sudan" • Christopher.Michel - "Khartoum, Sudan" • joaquinuy - "untitled image" • Christopher.Michel - "Khartoum, Sudan" • FrankWinkler - "sunset dusk last light" • valerian.guillot - "Naga Temple, Sudan" • James St. John - "Chromitite (Great Dike of Rhodesia, Neoarchean, 2.57-2.58 Ga; Caesar Mine, Mvurwi Range, northern Zimbabwe, southern Africa)" • schizoform - "20120630 copper" • ronijj - "mica 004" • subarcticmike - "Nanisivik Zinc Ore" • Quade Hermann - "Mythic Nile" • Free Grunge Textures - www.freestock.ca - "Sudan Grunge Flag" • maxos_dim - "desert rocks sand" • jules:stonesoup - "chickpeas" • SaucyGlo - "Cotton" • apple_pathways - "Sunflowers" • Christopher.Michel - "Exploration of Sudan" • rofisch - "hippo nature animals" • www.beontheroad.com - "IMG_0958" • D-Stanley - "White Nile Bridge" • Christopher.Michel - "Exploration of Sudan" • bptakoma - "cotton" • Oxfam East Africa - "Cattle camp in Lakes state" • eugeni_dodonov - "Ex-sugar cane" • Jorge Lascar - "The Nile as seen from the hotel" • Mark Jordahl - "Nile River Boat Launch" • D-Stanley - "Keren Station" • Christopher.Michel - "Khartoum, Sudan" • Green Prophet1 - "Kuraymat" • philwarren - "Uganda Village" • cytech - "Sahara, Morocco" • Christopher.Michel - "Exploration of Sudan" • motazabdelazeem صور من السودان - "river Nile" • Oxfam East Africa - "Supporting girls' education" • D-Stanley - "Karima Sudan"

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