Modern Physics Bailey DeSherlia

General Relativity - An idea started by Einstein that describes space and time as a single force, or space-time. This model demonstrates that mass warps space-time the closer it is to an object. More massive objects such as planets and stars have a much greater influence. We feel this force as gravity pulling us toward the earth.
String Theory - The current front-line of modern physics in the goal for a "Theory of Everything" is String Theory. This is the idea that at an extremely unfathomable size, smaller than the quarks (and other parts) that make up the subatomic particles which make up atoms. Strings are supposedly the building blocks of the existence of everything. In order for String Theory to work there are many dimensions in which these strings exist in, and create different things based on length, shape, and vibration. To be honest, I can't even begin to understand how any of this theory is supposed to work. Although I am not a skeptic.
Grand Unification - The theory that modern science is currently attempting to reach that combines General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics to explain how the universe works. Currently, the theories only work separately where Quantum mechanics makes sense at the infinitesimally small level and General Relativity works in larger scale.
Quantum Mechanics - The model that describes how subatomic particles move and react among each other. This is not a theory, and describes through mathematical equations how each of the forces work at the subatomic level, aside from General Relativity.
The Four Fundamental Forces - These four forces are the key sections of modern physics theories and models. They are: Gravity (explained earlier), Electromagnetism, Strong and Weak Nuclear forces. Electromagnetism is the attraction of atoms through electrons and protons (negative and positive forces in the atoms), or lack thereof, and the transfer of electrons between atoms. Strong nuclear forces are what keeps atoms together, it is what forms the bond between protons and neutrons. Weak nuclear force is responsible for radioactive decay. It is when an atom loses energy in its nucleus by emitting radiation through alpha, beta, gamma rays, or neutrinos.

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