“Plagiarism is intentionally or unintentionally reproducing (copying, rewording, paraphrasing, adapting, etc.) work that was produced by another person(s) without proper acknowledgment in an attempt to gain academic benefit. Intentionally or negligently allowing such reproduction to happen may also constitute plagiarism.” (CU, 2020)
Collusion refers to working too closely with one or more individuals to help solve and/or answer an assessed task or question, producing a joint answer or solution (intentionally or not) to gain an unfair advantage over other students. (Open University, 2018:25)
Contract cheating usually happens when students commission/use a third party to complete their assessed work on their behalf. Students then submit the commissioned work as if they have done it themselves. The third party can range from essay writing service, a friend/family/another student, to a private tutor/copy editing services/etc. (Clarke & Lancaster, 2006)
When we refer below to plagiarism, it includes collusion and contract cheating.