What is literature to me?
Literature is like a journey, an escape from reality and the obligations of daily routine. And what is the destination? Simply. Our mind, full of imagination, thoughts. Literature is a new point of view to see everything that surrounds us. It makes them new, as we find out for the first time.
To me literature is like a garden, full of flowers you can pick up by reading, by thinking.
To me literature is forgetting my worries and wondering about my life.
In literature I want to find myself, my thoughts, my opinions.
LITERATURE IS LIFE.
Who is endowed with the search of knowledge? Everyone of us. When someone wants to reflect upon their existece, they think and overthink of who they are, what they have done and what they have learned. So, everybody can make literature. The only think we need, is our own mind, anything else.
...SO LET'S START OUR JOURNEY TOGETHER...
Mary Shelley was born on August 30, 1797 in London to philosopher William Godwin and feminist Mary Wollestonecraft; both her parents were noted writers in the 1800s. They married in 1797 to protect the rights of the forthcoming child. When their daughter Mary was born, William and Mary had only been married for five months. Four weeks after giving birth, Mary Wollestonecraft died of complications. Thus, Mary Shelley never knew her mother. Her father remarried a woman by the name of Mrs. Clairmont when the young Mary was four years old. She enjoyed writing at a young age, and her passion was to write stories intended for a very limited audience. It was at home that Mary developed into a person of letters, following in the family tradition of writers and thinkers. Between June 1812 and March 1814, Mary lived with relatives in Scotland. It was upon her return visits to London when she met Percy Bysshe Shelley, who idolized her father, and their relationship began. Mary and Percy left England for France in June 1814 to begin a life together. Shelley was still married to his first wife, Harriet Westbrook. Within four years of being married, Percy met Mary, and a new marriage was proposed as soon as the first marriage was dissolved. In the summer of 1816, a tour of continental Europe was proposed. It was during this summer that the form for Frankenstein was to take shape. The story was first only a few pages, but with the encouragement of Percy, the tale took on a greater length.
"Dr. Victor Frankenstein wanted to create perfection. Mixing science and alchem. He almost succeeded. The thing breathed, it moved, it opened its eyes ."
In this passage the creature is a guest of the De Lacey family, composed of Felix, Agatha and their father. In the meantime an Arabian woman comes to the cottage. Safie makes an earnest attempt to learn the De Lacey's language, which benefits the monster in learning a language as well. While listening to the conversations in the house, the monster gets a brief but memorable lesson in the history of Europe. Frankenstein started reflect upon his life. He understood the quality of human beings and the meaning of life. While I was reading, I did the same thing.
Frankenstein started reflect upon his life. He understood the quality of human beings and the meaning of life. While I was reading, I did the same thing.
“I was confused, did not understand where I was, who or what I was”-Chapter 4.
2nd July 1999, it was a hot summer night and there was a cloudless sky. The day I was born. Just like every human being, I could not remember something about that day. Everything begins with a moan and as soon as my mother held me in her arms, I muttered “some inarticulate sounds” and I had a big grin on my face when my relatives and acquaintances came to the hospital to visit me. But has my existence started on the day of my birth? I do not think so. My life has started when my parents gave me and identity, to be more precise a name and a surname so I could feel part of family, accepted and intentionally brought into the world from who conceived me. Giorgia: she was my sister’s best friend at her nursery school’s class and Sara, my sister, begged my parents to choose it as my name. I have never believed it is merely a coincidence who and why choose my name, because nowadays my sister and I are like best friend and I think I just could never imagine my life without her by my side: she never leave me on my own and she looks after me better than someone else.
“Over the next day I began too see beauty of the world around me”-Chapter 4.
My mum always tells me that days immediately after our hospital discharge, she used to take me on walks.
“I saw little flying creatures, which after while I learnt were insects. I heard the birds singing and saw the changing beauty of sky above me”-Chapter 4.
“The next day I came to a village, but when the people saw me they attacked me and chased me away with stones”.
How could people be so mean, so awful to the monster? I just could never think about a life as the creature’s one: friends of my parents or neighbors, we bumped into them along the street, when saw my mother with the pushchair , they always and tried to make me laugh and smile brushing my chubby cheeks and thinking about if I looked more like my father or my mother. In the meantime, time flows imperceptibly and my life goes on step by step. In 2002, I started attending the kindergarten: I was surrounded by boys and girls and adults which I had to call them “teacher”.
“They were kind and gentle” like Felix, Agatha and their blind father which welcomed the creature in their cottage. “I began to understand some of the words they used to communicate with each other”-Chapter 13.
As the monster, while I was attending the kindergarten, I started learning by heart some song that we used to sing during Christmas pageant, painting, repeating loudly numbers from 1 to 10. I was really happy and at the same time I get to know how to get by in this world. Always going step by step, I started a new adventure in 2005: the elementary school.
“I never ventured abroad during daylight, fearful of meeting with the same treatment I had formerly endured in the first village I entered”- Chapter 13.
I was afraid of things that would be new, or better things that would be different from they were before. I have not had coloring books yet, but only texts I had to read, it has been to enough to know numbers from 1 to 10, but I had to know how to add, subtract, multiply and divide. The thing I was most afraid of was not knowing all my new classmates.
Does the study of literature and philosphy promt deeper reflection on me?
All thanks to a closer study of literature, history and philosophy, I could start reflecting and thinking over upon things without being influenced by other people’s thoughts and opinions. I think the philosopher that sparked a thinking process is Hobbes, with the sentence “Homo hominis lupus”. Hobbes explained that every human being, when found a society, is ruled by his own interests of surviving, even using violence against other humans, establishing “a war of all against all”. So we live in a world made of injustice, corruption, where “one man could go forth to murder his fellow” and until the world goes on and on in this way, there will be always someone who thinks himself superior than the others, making a “division of property of immense wealth and squalid poverty, of rank, descent and noble blood”.-Chapter 13. I think that even in my own little way, I can make a difference. I should not say “How I wished I had never been created” because I do not have a prominent position within society, I am not rich, I have not noble blood. I will never think as the monster does, “I am nobody, I am different, I am a monster.” I can just fight against this ignorance with the power of knowledge. I already know that ‘my path’ have been started for 11 years and if I have to be grateful to my family and my friends, who are always by my side and I hope it always be so.
...ALWAYS WE SEARCH OUR ROOTS...
WHAT WAS THE SITUATION IN BRITAIN?
From 1625 Charles I was the king of Britain. He could not avoid direct confrontation with the Puritan Party, which had given rise to a social and political movement holding a majority in Parliament. Puritans was the given to the more extreme Protestants and they wanted to purify their national Church by eliminating every trace of Catholic influence and to balance the power between the king and the Parliament. But Charles I believed he was king by divine right. When in 1642 the king was asked to give up his command of the armed forces and he refused, the civil war broke out.The two factions were the Royalists or Cavaliers, who sided with the king and the Parliamentarians or Roundheads, who supported the Parliament.
AND WHAT ABOUT JOHN MILTON?
John Milton was born in London in 1608, into a middle-class family. He was a reforming prose writer, a member of revolutionary government and the victim of censorship. When the monarchy was abolished in 1649, he served the republican government. After the return of the monarchy in 1660, his republican writings were condemned to be burnt and the author was sent to prison. He died in London in 1674.
Milton chose the epic genre for his masterpiece Paradise Lost. This poem followed the tipycal epic conventions:
- It opens with a precise statement of the theme of epic
- it takes place in the universe: in Heaven, Hell and Eden, where there are God, Satan, Christ, Man and many fallen angels.
- there is the typical character of the epic hero who must learn to control himself before he is judged to found an empire.
who is the epic hero?
Satan is the epic hero and he has many characteristics to prove it: leadership, the courage which he refuses to accept defeat and a willingness to undertake the enterprise to escape from Hell. Milton spends more artistic energy on the development of Satan so that throughtout the poem, Satan's character maintains the reader's interest and sympathy, from the very beginning of the story.
In this passage Satan is speaking to the other angels. He is a great persuader: throw the power of speech, words and language, he became a great leader. Moreover, he consider himself as powerful as God and both of them have in common “reason”. Here, he is not as happy as in Hell and he is fed by the thirst of venglance.
how does this passage spoke to me?
I reflect upon the importance of speech, language and words. It is the most important means of communication between people. Words flow directly from mind, without going through the body, our prison. Using words make us free to share our feelings and thoughts. But what does it mean “be free”? Everyone one has its own interpretation and all of them are right.
Freedom is like a dove, which flies without getting tired of it
Freedom is always no matter of time and space
Freedom is in everybody’s soul
the just-created adam
It is the first time that Adam sees the world and what it is made of. So for him is everything new and beautiful. He wants to know something about his own creation which is a mystery for him. Where does human life begin? In nature. That is the reason why he addressed to nature and the creatures in order to find out information about his roots. In this passage, we, as a reader, see things which make up the world though the eyes of Adam.
relationship between people and nature
Adam’s research spark into the reader an interior thinking process. Where I am from? I admit, sometimes I reflect upon this question and I cannot find an answer until now. “For man to tell how human life began is hard” .It is very hard. But I believe that nature knows all information I am searching for. Nature is the place where everything begins, even human life. That is the reason why human beings are in tune with nature: a sort of relationship that is made of constant cohesion and detachment. Would nature be better off without humans? I do no think so. We are nothing without nature and nature is nothing without human being. So as a sign of respect and gratitude we, as human being, have to abide by nature and his rules. In the end, we are always searching our roots, how we have changed and how we are similar. Where we can find them? IN NATURE.
English writer, journalist and pamphletter.
Daniel Defoe was born in 1660 in London, as the son of James Foe, a butcher. He studied at Charles Morton’s Academy, in London. Although his “not conformist father” intended him for the ministry, Defoe plunged into politics and trade. In 1684 he married Mary Tuffley and they had two sons and five daughters. In the next year Defoe earned fame with his satirical poem “The true born Englishman” in 1701. After one year Defoe wrote his famous pamphlet “The shortest way with Dissenters”. Himself a Dissenter, he mimicked the extreme attitudes of High Anglican Tories and pretended to argue for the extermination of all Dissenters. Daniel Defoe was the first of the eighteenth-century novelists. In fact, during his life he wrote more than 500 works of writing on geography, politics, crime, religion and many more topics. In 1719 he published his first novel “Robinson Crusoe” After 3 years he wrote “Moll Flanders” and “Colonel Jack” . “The fortunate mistress” better know as “Roxana” was the last novel he published in 1724. After 7 years, in 1731 Daniel Defoe died in London, giving great importance to bourgeois values of people of his time.
WHAT WERE THE FEATURES OF THE 18th-centurY NOVEL?
18th-century novel shared the following features:
- Events were usually narreted in chronological sequence
- Narration was in the 1st person (the narrator and protagonist are the same person) or the 3rd person (the narrator is omniscient)
- The setting was given great attention, with specific references to names of the countries for example
- References were made to particular times of the year or of the day
- All the characters were given contemporary names and surnames to reinforce the impression of realism
- The language was simple and factual
- The hero of the novel was always the someone from the new middle-class (which is considered "the best state in the world" by Crusoe's father, because it is the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships and even the pride and luxury).