Childhood Vaccinations By: Jaspreet G & SImar M

Social Impact

Well, a direct social impact of childhood vaccinations, worldwide, is how they help save the lives of humans everyday. These vaccinations help keep our human population strong and healthy. Some parents choose not to vaccinate their children, and this not only affects their kids, but everyone because if they get a disease they could spread it to so many other children, and babies in particular since they are so vulnerable. This is why many schools take the initiative to make sure a child has their vaccinations in order to be allowed to attend. For example in the Peel District School Board the Meningococcal vaccine is required for school attendance. This is to not only prevent your kids from getting a dangerous disease but the children around them as well. Some people believe vaccinations may cause their child to have autism, which is why they choose not to have their child vaccinated, but, don’t be alarmed vaccinations do not typically cause children to have autism. Really, there are very rare scientifically proven dangerous side-effects to childhood vaccinations, which is why there isn’t really a reason not to get them. Due to parents not choosing to vaccinate their children, diseases like measles have been making a comeback around the world, and one case typically affects 12 to 18 people, which is why even one outbreak can make a big difference. Parents’ decisions as to vaccinate their children or not, has a social impact on their children, Canada, and the world.

ON Science 10

McGraw Hill Ryerson

Pg 109 to 112

Environmental Impact

Although rabies vaccinations aren’t typically meant for children, these vaccinations do have a positive environmental impact. These vaccines that help certain animals defend their bodies against rabies are responsible for saving many lives every year. However, there are many negative environmental impacts due to these vaccinations as well, and they generally occur before the vaccine is shot into a child’s arm. Firstly the factories, they pollute the environment around them, with their dangerous toxins used to produce the vaccines, and large amounts of these chemicals can severely damage the wildlife in and around the production plant. Some vaccinations themselves, also require ingredients that need to be obtained from the wildlife. This is illustrated, as squalene, a substance used in the vaccination to prevent swine flu is typically derived from deep water sharks, threatening their existence. There is also the great controversial topic of animal testing with the vaccinations, and whether testing, with little concern for their lives, on animals, like chickens, is worth it to save ours. Injecting these animals with a disease and seeing how the vaccination fights it off, to prove its effectiveness is just one of the ways animals are used in the process of creating vaccinations. Depending on the vaccination, sometimes scientists and doctors need to withdraw a version of a disease that may affect a chicken greatly but not a human as much so that the human body can prepare to fight a stronger version of the same disease if it ever encounters it. Childhood vaccinations have a great impact on the environment, whether it be around the child who just got vaccinated, Canada, or the world.

Economical Impact

The value of vaccinations is high in many aspects, from social to economical. The importance of immunization, especially children, has been shared amongst many countries. This is very clearly displayed in Capital Health Region, Alberta. In Capital Health, all routine child immunizations are delivered through public health centres and immunizations programs. The total cost of the immunization program would have been $9.9 million if all 11,879 children born in the Capital Health region in 2004 were vaccinated. This cost includes the cost of vaccination and the service of delivery/operational cost.

In developing countries around the world, the overall cost of vaccine packages have increased by 2700%. Going from $1.37 in 2001 (six vaccines in package) to $38 in 2011(11 vaccines in package). These high costs may risk the lives of many children, as immunization programs may not have enough support and funds to pay for them.

As for locally in Ontario, routine vaccinations are funded for by OHIP, but there is a significant cost for others. Doctors charge different costs for the same vaccines and the cost is generally lower for children. The cost is typically $45 for children.

Despite these high costs, childhood vaccinations are saving between 2-3 million lives each year. This results to a high number of medical cases averted. In 2004, Capital Health Region saved an estimated $10,984,000 in medical costs. In the end, vaccinations are saving millions of lives worldwide each year, along with saving money.


OHIP Solution

A controversial problem concerning the availability and cost of vaccines is an issue for many Ontarians. When a vaccine is not covered by Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP), the physician must charge the patient and it is not guaranteed that someone will qualify for a publicly funded vaccine.

The HPV vaccine is free of charge for all boys and girls in grade 7. The program runs through a school based clinic, so the vaccine is free of charge until grade 12. However, many vaccines are not covered by OHIP, including travel vaccines.

These should be funded by the insurance plan because the cost of recovering infections brought back by travellers may be greater than the cost of funding the vaccines. If not funding all travel vaccines, the government could start by covering costs for certain, most common ones. Some common travel vaccinations include Hepatitis A and B and Yellow Fever. They could also cover costs for travel vaccine consultations.


How Vaccines Work

Vaccines are meant to help prepare the body, and to give it practice fighting off a disease. Vaccines that are inserted into the child’s body can come in many different forms, whether the pathogen be alive but weakened, the pathogen is killed, only a part of the pathogen is used, a mutation of the pathogen is used, or it is mimicked. Regardless of the type of vaccine, and whether it is active or not, they all support the same purpose which is to help teach the body how to fight against a virus if the body ever encounters it. The immune system, and white blood cells play a great role in this process. When foreign microbes invade the human body, the immune system triggers various responses to identify and remove these invaders. After the antigens enter the human body, into the blood and tissues, the white blood cells, B and T cells, get to work in trying to defeat these invaders. Antigens attract macrophages, which then proceed on to eat these antigens. Macrophages, are the ones that signal to the T cell that there are invaders, these T cells are killers and try to attack the antigens to defend the body. Some T cells are suppressors whom will stop the attack. B cells are the ones that record the defense the T cells took against the antigens, and create defensive antibodies. These created antibodies help the cells recognize and destroy the previously mentioned antigens if they choose to attack the body again. Sometimes children are also inserted with booster shots, to remind the body and cells how to fight again, and help keep them strong.

ON Science 10

McGraw Hill Ryerson

Pg 108 to 112

How the Circulatory System is Affected:

The circulatory system plays a big role in the entire vaccination process. Quite simply put, the circulatory system is what helps circulate the vaccine throughout the human, in this case child’s body until it reaches the immune system, which puts up the fight to keep its body strong and healthy. The vaccine is inserted into a part of the body which has a good blood flow. This is so that the blood in the circulatory system of your body can transport the vaccination around to where it needs to be, where the immune system can fight it until the antigen’s defeat. This system also helps the production of antibodies, and riddance of the antigens.

ON Science 10

McGraw Hill Ryerson

Pg 95 - 96, 100 - 101

How the Respiratory System is Affected:

Coughing, sneezing, and the flu all affect the respiratory system. These are also typical side effects found in children after they have a vaccination inserted. The vaccination generally weakens the immune system, as the body is trying to fight this purposely placed virus, and this naturally takes a toll on the respiratory system. Some vaccinations, depending on how it was created also have the power for herd immunity. The respiratory system has an important role in this process, as after the child may get vaccinated and depending on the vaccination, it is normal for the child to acquire the flu. With the flu there are symptoms, of sneezing and coughing and this leads to the spreading of germs and bacteria. Since the child spreading these germs has been vaccinated his/her germs also posses the properties of the vaccination, so in result their germs are given all those receiving them immunity for the disease(s) the vaccination was for.

ON Science 10

McGraw Hill Ryerson

Pg. 95- 96, 103 - 104

How the Digestive System is Affected:

The rotavirus is a common virus found especially in young children, and infants. It causes severe vomiting and diarrhea, which is why children are often vaccinated at 28 months, and then again possibly at 30 months, to prevent dehydration, and possible hospitalization, caused by this virus. This vaccination is especially recommended if your child has an abnormality of the digestive system because this virus affects the digestive system. In result, the vaccination for this virus affects the digestive system, strengthening its immune system by preparing its cells to fight against this horrible virus, and just generally helping it become healthier. Many other vaccinations affect the digestive system and others can have side effects affecting this system as well. For example, there have been concerns of the MMR vaccine causing the recipients of the vaccine to have Inflammatory Bowel disease.

ON Science 10

McGraw Hill Ryerson

Pg. 95- 96, 97-99


Vaccine Researcher

As the title suggests, a vaccine researcher is one to produce safe and effective vaccines. Studying and examining vaccines is also an important aspect, as pre-existing vaccines have to be modified each year. The tasks of a vaccine researcher also include studying data and reports to predict outbreak risks and to develop initiatives to deliver vaccines. Communicating their research and findings is an important aspect, whether it is through writing articles and textbooks, or speaking at conferences and presenting to fellow researchers.


Medical Imaging Technologies Used in Diagnosis

Medical imaging is a process of producing a visualization of the interior body for analysis and diagnosis. Tissues and organs are seen using medical imaging technology to identify abnormalities. These devices function with properties of light and are created keeping in mind the electromagnetic spectrum. These characteristics of technology are also related to physics. This is important for accurate diagnosis. In some cases, medical imaging equipment is needed before giving a vaccination. For example, a patient must be scanned and diagnosed with a specific cancer before a cancer vaccine can be delivered to them.

Here is a list of some medical imaging technology that has advanced in the following years.


Photographic film exposed by transmitting a electromagnetic radiation through the body

Cannot see all the details of organs, such as the brain.

Radiation goes through soft tissues and isn’t displayed on the film, best used for hard tissue (bone).

CT or CAT scan:

Three dimensional image produced by taking X-Rays of very thin “slices” of a body part.

Ultrasound (medical sonography):

Directs high frequency sound waves at part of body, generally from microphone attached to computer

Shows movement of body parts like the heart; useful for watching organ function

MRI Scan:

Uses radio signals in magnetic field to create images of body parts


Tiny camera and light attached to flexible tube

Barium X-Ray:

Patient drinks “barium milkshake,” when X-Rayed, shows lining of stomach and any ulcerations or tumours.

Despite the advantages of developing technology, some issues have arisen concerning the ethics and use of it. Inappropriate imaging utilization is one of these issues. Also referred to as “imaging up” this refers to ordering an MRI or CT when plain films or ultrasound will answer a clinical question. Other issues include a mistake in diagnosis, damage to DNA by strong radiation, harm by radiation, small increase in potential for person to develop cancer later in life, and tissue effects such as cataracts, hair loss, and skin reddening.


The annual global market for diagnostic medical imaging equipment and software is estimated at $32 billion and growing by seven percent each year. These softwares and equipment developed by Canadian academic centers include very innovative tools for imaging, but sales of imaging equipment from Canadian companies represent less than one percent of the global market and less than two percent in the American market.

This advancement has had positive impact around the world, as more patients have been diagnosed using CT and MRI scanning. It has had an outstanding impact on society and medicine as a whole, as the technological enhancement has resulted in accurate, more informed diagnosis and better patient care. These devices and ways of imaging are effective and very efficient.


ON Science 10

Mcgraw HIll Ryerson

Pg. 94, 95


Created with images by Myriams-Fotos - "syringe disposable syringe needle" • juhansonin - "Vaccinate Your Child" • - "Beagle Dogs in Research for Animal Testing" • Apotek Hjartat - "TBE-vaccination hos Apotek Hjärtat" • stevepb - "syringe injection drug" • qimono - "blood cells red" • Myriams-Fotos - "cold catch a cold sniff" • CDC Global Health - "Girl receiving oral polio vaccine" • NIAID - "Zika Virus Research" • liverpoolhls - "dog xray" • Muffet - "CAT scanner" • falco - "medical ultrasound monitor" • digital cat  - "Medizinisches Großgerät - Tomotherapy Hi Art" • Sam Blackman - "The Endoscopy Suite" • Sustainable sanitation - "Ascaris infection in the x-ray image: ascaris arranged tidily along the long axis of the small bowel (South Africa)" • NEC Corporation of America - "NEC-Medical-137"

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