Southern Africa PAges 377-396

Land forms and Bodies of Water

  1. The region of Southern Africa consists of the 10 southernmost countries on the African continent.
  2. The Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of the continent is considered the place where the two oceans meet.
  3. The country of Madagascar occupies the world's fourth-largest island, also called Madagascar.

Land forms

  1. In Angola the escarpment runs parallel to the Atlantic coast and counties through Namibia.
  2. The northern plateaus extend from Malawi across Zambia and Angola.
  3. South of the Kalahari Desert, much of the rest of Southern Africa is covered by a huge plateau that slopes from about 8,000 feet in the east to 2,000 feet in the west.

Bodies of Water

  • Zambezi
  • Limpopo
  • Orangedrain
Which type of land form is common in Southern Africa?

Climate-Tropical Zone

  1. Southern Africa has a wide variety of climates, ranging from humid to arid to hot to cool.
  2. Nearly all of the region's climates have distinct seasons, with certain seasons receiving most of the rain.

Temperate Zones

  1. Summer days are warm-from 70 degrees F to 90 degrees F depending on elevation
  2. Annual rainfall varies from 8 inches in some areas to 24 inches..

Desert Regions

  1. This area is sometimes called the Skeleton Coast because many ships used to lose their way in the fog and run aground.
  2. Western South Africa, western Namibia, and much of Botswana are arid.
Why are temperatures in Southern Africa's tropical countries generally not hot?
Monsoons bring in lot of rain.

Natural Resoureces

What natural resources are found in Southern Africa, and why are they important?
They have help build a strong economy and platinum, chromium, gold, and diamonds.

South Africa Resources

  1. The Republic of South Africa has some of the largest mineral reserves in the world.
  2. These resources, along with important deposits of coal, iron ore, uranium, copper, and other minerals, have created a thriving mining industry.

Energy Resources

  1. The region's rivers are another resource for providing power.
  2. Oil and gas must be refined, or changed into other products, before they can be used.

Minerals and Other Resources

  1. Namibia is one of Africa's richest countries in mineral resources.
  2. Mozambique has the world's largest supply of the rare metal tantalite, which is used to make electronic parts and camera lenses.


  1. Southern Africa is known for its variety of animal life.
How does deforestation affect the energy supply in the region?
Since the are getting rid of the trees the minerals will start to wash away.

Lesson 2

History of Southern Africa- Rise of Kingdoms

  1. Southern Africa's indigenous have inhabited the region for thousands of years.

Great Zimbabwe

  1. Around the year A.D. 900, the Shona people built wealthy and powerful kingdom in what is now Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
  2. As many as 20,000 people lived in the city and the surrounding valley.

The Mutapa Empire

  1. In the late 1400's the Shona conquered the region between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers from Zimbabwe to the coast of Mozambique.
  2. The Portuguese arrived and took control over the coastal trade in the 1500's.

Other KIngdoms

  1. The Zulu leader Shaka united his people in the early 1800's to form the Zulu Empire in what is now South Africa.
  2. A series of kingdoms rose and fell on the island of Madagascar from the 1600's to the 1800's.

European Colonies

  1. Around the 1500's, Portugal and other European countries began establishing settlements along the African coast.

Clashes in Southern Africa

  1. The Africans did not like the Dutch pushing into their land, and soon they started fighting over it.

The Union of South Africa

  1. Wars in Europe gave Britain control of the Cape Colony in the early 1800's
Cape Colony's flag

Colonialism in Other Areas

  1. While the British and the Boers competed for the South Africa, other European countries were competing over the rest of Africa.
Which European country claimed the most territory in Southern Africa?

Independence and Equal Rules

  1. French rule in Madagascar ended in 1960's, making it the first Southern African country to gain independence.

The End of Portuguese

  1. While other European nations gave up their African colonies, Portugal refused to do so.

The Birth of Zimbabwe

  1. After granting Malawi and Zambia independence, Britain prepared to free neighboring Zimbabwe, then called Southern Rhodesia.
Flag Zimbabwe

Equal Rights in South Africa

  1. After independence, the growth of South Africa's mining and other industries depend on the labor of Black Africans, who greatly outnumbered the country's whites.
  2. English South Africans controlled the government until the end of World War 2.
  3. By the 1970's, apartheid-related events in the South Africa had gained world attention.

Lesson 3

Life in South Africa- The People of the Region

  1. The population of Southern Africa is overwhelmingly black African.

Population Pattenrs

  1. Southern Africa's countries vary widely in population.
  2. Population depends heavily on geography and economics.
  3. South Africa and Angola are about the same size.

Ethnic and Culture Group

  1. About 4 million Tswana from the major population group in Botswana.
  2. Groups like the Chewa, Tsonga, Ambo, and San illustrate an important point about Southern Africa's history.
  3. Southern Africa is home to many ethnic and cultural groups who speak several different languages.

Religion and Languages

  1. Southern Africa's colonial past has also influenced people's religious beliefs.
  2. In Angola, however, nearly half the population counties to hold traditional indigenous religious beliefs.
What is the main religion practiced in Southern Africa?

Life in Southern Africa

  1. As in other regions of Africa, life differs from city to countryside.

Urban Life

  1. Although most people in the region of Southern Africa live in the countryside, migration to cities grows because of job opportunities.

Urban Growth and Change

  1. The rapid growth of some cities has strained public utilities- services such as trash collection, sewage treatment, and water distribution.
  2. The region's cities have a mix of many ethnic groups and cultures.
  3. Johannesburg's role as a mining, manufacturing, and financial center has attracted people from around the world.

Family and Traditional Life

  1. People who move to the cities must adjust to new experiences and a different way of life.
  2. Rural villages are often small- consisting of perhaps 20 or 30 houses.
Where in their countries do most Southern Africans live?
City or countryside

Southern Africa Today

  1. Southern Africa's wealth of mineral, wildlife, and other resources may be the key to its future.

Health Issues

  1. Life expectancy in Southern Africa is low.


  1. Malaria, a tropical disease carried by mosquitoes, is a problem in several countries.
  2. Southern Africa has some of the highest rates of infant death in the world.
  3. A major cause of death in children and adults is HIV/AIDS.

Progress and Growth

  1. Angola and Mozambique counties to rebuild the cities and towns, industries, railroads, and communications systems that have been damaged or destroyed by years of civil war.
  2. Tourism at national parks has grown with the establishment of stable, democratic governments.

Help From Other Countries

  1. The United States has used economic aid to strengthen democracy in Southern Africa.
  2. Other countries and international organizations have also made huge huge investments in the region.
Why is life expectancy in Southern Africa so low?
Lack of good rural health care.


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