Building Structure and Housing
Sao Paulo was originally a very condensed city, with packed-in buildings. As urban growth increased, low-density housing developments sprung up in addition to high-rises. Increases in land prices and regulation caused the rise of very high-density favela and cortico slums, which are low-cost, high-occupancy tenements known for crime and low quality of life.
A precarious cortico in Sao Paulo.
Toxic industrial wastes and wastewater dumped polluted the local rivers. Sewerage mains represent 89% of the streets but sewage treatment is restricted to 58%. This poses serious water and watershed pollution problem, as 42% of served water goes untreated to the rivers, causing scarcity of clean water near the city. Sao Paulo has 15000 tons of garbage daily, by trucks. With the introduction of a residue tax, in 2004, the volume decreased to 9,678 tons per day. It also has created 31 triage centers that employ 300 persons. 99.5% of the streets are served by the public garbage collection system. In the slum areas, the collection is done in the main streets. Sao Paulo has developed innovative ways for managing very significant amounts of waste, and this implies reducing disposal in the ground, making selective collection with the inclusion of waste pickers, encouraging recycling, and holding citizens co-responsible through educational campaigns in the media.
Brazil gets an overwhelming share of its electricity from renewable sources, primarily hydroelectric power. Roughly 77% of Brazil's power comes from hydroelectric dams, with only 17% coming from fossil fuels. We think it's safe to assume that the energy sourcing of Sao Paulo is reflective of this.
The massive Itaipu Dam, near the border with Paraguay, provides power directly to Sao Paulo.
The Tietê River and its tributary, the Pinheiros River, were important sources of freshwater and leisure for Sao Paulo until they got severely polluted. Sao Paulo has efficient water collection, treatment and distribution. 99.4% of households have water connections and 98.5% of its inhabitants have access to potable treated water. Many clean-up programs for both rivers are being carried out, subsidized through a partnership between local government and international development banks, such as the Japan Bank for International Cooperation.
The primary form of pollution in Sao Paulo is air pollution from automobiles and industrialization. Restrictions have recently been emplaced to restrict automobile usage in efforts to reduce air pollution. Air pollution seems to be decreasing, and pollution related deaths are going down.
Here is an unsourced population pyramid that Min found somewhere.
Brazil as a whole has population momentum, which means that national growth would continue even if fertility rates dropped below 2.1 children per woman, which is the replacement rate. Sao Paulo has declining death rates, due to lower homicides and pollution, and a high birth rate as it is. The Sao Paulo megacity has approximately 10% of the whole nation’s population. Sao Paulo’s population is growing at a high rate, so it has solid population momentum.
Demographic Transition Stage
Population of Sao Paulo grew mainly after the end of the 19th Century, reaching 10 millions in 2000 from 31000 in 1872. Birth rate has decreased slowly. Fertility rate is now 1.9 births per woman. Death rate has decreased also due to the improvement in sanitary, economic and nutritional conditions. It is now 6.38 deaths per 1,000 people. Life expectancy is 71.6 years, but it is lower for men, 66.5 years, than for women 75.5 years, due to higher risks among male population, such as violence, tobacco, alcohol consumption, and stress. Population growth rate has decreased a lot. It is now 0.88% per year. Urban population represents 97.7% of the total population in Sao Paulo. Migration rate, which was high before, is negative now. Population density is relatively high, 7024 people per square kilometer.