Dogs Dogs๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ๐Ÿถ

The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris or Canis familiaris)[2] is a member of genus Canis (canines) that forms part of the wolf-like canids,[3] and is the most widely abundant carnivore.[4][5][6] The dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa,[7][8][9] with modern wolves not closely related to the wolves that were first domesticated.[8][9] The dog was the first domesticated species[9][10] and has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes.[11]

Their long association with humans has led dogs to be uniquely attuned to human behavior[12] and they are able to thrive on a starch-rich diet that would be inadequate for other canid species.[13] Dogs vary widely in shape, size and colours.[14] Dogs perform many roles for people, such as hunting, herding, pulling loads, protection, assisting police and military, companionship and, more recently, aiding handicapped individuals. This influence on human society has given them the sobriquet "man's best friend".

Cute dogs

The term "domestic dog" is generally used for both domesticated and feral varieties. The English word dog comes from Middle English dogge, from Old English docga, a "powerful dog breed".[15] The term may possibly derive from Proto-Germanic *dukkลn, represented in Old English finger-docce ("finger-muscle").[16] The word also shows the familiar petname diminutive -ga also seen in frogga "frog", picga "pig", stagga "stag", wicga "beetle, worm", among others.[17] The term dog may ultimately derive from the earliest layer of Proto-Indo-European vocabulary.[18]

In 14th-century England, hound (from Old English: hund) was the general word for all domestic canines, and dog referred to a subtype of hound, a group including the mastiff. It is believed this "dog" type was so common, it eventually became the prototype of the category "hound".[19] By the 16th century, dog had become the general word, and hound had begun to refer only to types used for hunting.[20] The word "hound" is ultimately derived from the Proto-Indo-European word *kwon-, "dog".[21] This semantic shift may be compared to in German, where the corresponding words Dogge and Hund kept their original meanings.

A male canine is referred to as a dog, while a female is called a bitch. The father of a litter is called the sire, and the mother is called the dam. (Middle English bicche, from Old English bicce, ultimately from Old Norse bikkja) The process of birth is whelping, from the Old English word hwelp; the modern English word "whelp" is an alternate term for puppy.[22] A litter refers to the multiple offspring at one birth which are called puppies or pups from the French poupรฉe, "doll", which has mostly replaced the older term "whelp".[23]

Playing in the grass

Laying down

Resting before I go chase a squirrel

In 1758, the taxonomist Linnaeus published in his Systema Naturae the classification of species. Canis is a Latin word meaning dog,[24] and under this genus he listed the dog-like carnivores including domestic dogs, wolves, and jackals. He classified the domestic dog as Canis familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758) and on the next page as a separate species he classified the wolf as Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758).[25] In 1926, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) ruled in Opinion 91 that the domestic dog Canis familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758) be placed on its official list.[26] In 1957, the ICZN ruled in Opinion 451 that Canis dingo (Meyer, 1793) was the name to be used for the dingo and that this be placed on its official list.[27] These are the scientific names for the dog and dingo that appear on the Official Lists and Indexes of Names in Zoology of the ICZN.[28]

In 1978, a review to reduce the number species listed under genus Canis proposed that "Canis dingo is now generally regarded as a distinctive feral domestic dog. Canis familiaris is used for domestic dogs, although taxonomically it should probably be synonymous with Canis lupus."[29] In 1982, the first edition of Mammal Species of the World included a note under Canis lupus with the comment: "Probably ancestor of and conspecific with the domestic dog, familiaris. Canis familiaris has page priority over Canis lupus, but both were published simultaneously in Linnaeus (1758), and Canis lupus has been universally used for this species".[30] In the same year, an application was made to the ICZN to reclassify the dingo to Canis lupus dingo because it was proposed that the wolf (Canis lupus) was the ancestor of dogs and dingoes, however the application was rejected.[31]

I smell a squirrel

Just give me the bone

I watching you eat that taco

Cultural depictions of dogs in art extend back thousands of years to when dogs were portrayed on the walls of caves. Representations of dogs became more elaborate as individual breeds evolved and the relationships between human and canine developed. Hunting scenes were popular in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Dogs were depicted to symbolize guidance, protection, loyalty, fidelity, faithfulness, watchfulness, and love.[215]

Ancient Greek rhyton in the shape of a dog's head, made by Brygos, early 5th century BC. Jรฉrรดme Carcopino Museum, Department of Archaeology, Aleria

Credits:

Created with images by lightstargod - "dog model french bulldog" โ€ข wernerdetjen - "animal portrait dog curious" โ€ข LaBruixa - "dog race fun" โ€ข Eddie~S - "dog" โ€ข Pezibear - "dog young dog small dog" โ€ข vlaaitje - "bulldog puppy dog" โ€ข karenwarfel - "puppy dog pet" โ€ข Wow_Pho - "dog cute pet" โ€ข wernerdetjen - "animal portrait dog curious" โ€ข ElvisClooth - "weimaraner puppy dog"

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