Biogeochemical Cycles Marine Science 2nd block

The Water Cycle

Description

The water cycle is the path that water takes in, on, and above Earth. It explains the existence of water changing between the three major states solid, liquid, and gas. Water evaporates from large bodies of water, or transpiration occurs from plants and trees. Then while in the atmosphere condensation creates clouds. When clouds get heavy rain falls as precipitation creating more large bodies of water and watering plants allowing the cycle to go around again.

Chemical Reactions

  • Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2.

Inorganic Compounds

  • Chloride
  • Sulfate
  • Iron
  • Fluoride

Organic Compounds

  • Carbon
  • Vegetation Roots
  • Organisms
  • Residual Organic Matter

Human Interference

Humans impact the water cycle on a daily basis. Whenever you put anything outside it always ends up in the local rivers and such because of runoff. Also now that there are roads everywhere, and asphalt there is an alarming amount of runoff compared to ground water. Oil in cars that drips out in parking lots always ends up back into the water.

The Nitrogen Cycle

Description

The nitrogen cycle is the conversion of nitrogen into more available forms like ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate. Most of the air humans breathe is N2 however that isn't as accessible for other organisms. The nitrogen cycle helps with that. Nitrogen comes from lightning which creates soil nitrates. They then go through waterlogged soil into the water nd evaporate into atmospheric nitrogen. The soil nitrates also go up through the roots of plants and then animals eat the plants. As those animals die and decompose the nitrates are put back into the soils. Nitrogen oxides along with evaporated water can fall as acid rain.

Chemical Reactions

  • Nitrogen Fixation: N2 + 3 H2 -> 2 NH3
  • Nitrification: 2 NH3 + 3O2 - > 2 NO2 + 2 H+ + 2 H2O
  • Nitrification: 2 NO2- + O2 -> 2 NO3-
  • Denitrification: NO3- + CH2O + H+ -> ½ N2O + CO2 + 1½ H2O
  • I got these from http://www.lenntech.com/nitrogen-cycle.htm

Organic Compounds

  • Proteins
  • Nucleotides
  • Nucleic Acids

Human Interference

Humans affect the nitrogen cycle in many ways. One way is the amount of vehicles and factories emitting nitrogen into the atmosphere. Also with the amount of asphalt and concrete covering the soil when lightning strikes it doesn't automatically created soil nitrates, and because of that certain plants and animals wouldn't get the nitrates that they need.

The Carbon Cycle

Description

The carbon cycle is the pathway that carbon takes from being in the air we breathe then into plants, and then into organisms. It is extremely important because carbon is a greenhouse gas and without greenhouse gasses Earth would be entirely frozen. It starts when the sun causes photosynthesis in plants. Plants produce CO2 which then goes into the atmosphere and other organisms breathe it in and out. Also when organisms die the CO2 can go into the ground with other fossil fuels, and when near ground water can travel into oceans, rivers, and lakes.

Chemical Reactions

  • Cellular Respiration: C6H12O6 (organic matter) + 6O2 ⇒ 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
  • Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2.

Inorganic Compounds

  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Water

Organic Compounds

  • Carbon
  • Hydrogen
  • Nitrogen
  • Sulfur
  • Phosphorus

Human Interference

The carbon cycle can be confused a lot by humans. Factory and auto emissions cause carbon to go in the atmosphere. Also photosynthesis causes by sunlight makes plants emit carbon as well. But the more carbon the warmer the atmosphere. We need it to be warm because obviously the world would freeze without some heat, but we don't want it to be too hot.

The Phosphorus Cycle

Description

The phosphorus cycle is the description of the transportation of phosphates from land to water. It is really interesting because unlike the other cycles it does not contain a gas stage. Phosphorus starts on rocks and within sediments. Then precipitation causes the erosion of phosphorus, and with runoff it ends up in the water. Plants can absorb phosphorus and animals eat those plants. Then when animals die they decompose and phosphorus in the soil is brought to the water through ground water tunnels.

Chemical Reactions

  • Phosphorus Fluoride: P4(s) + 6F2(g) = 4PF3(g)
  • Phosphorus Chloride: P4(s) + 6Cl2(g) = 4PCl3(I)
  • Phosphorus Bromide: P4(s) + 6Br2(g) = 4PBr3(I)
  • Phosphorus Iodide: P4(s) + 6I2(g) = 4PI3(g)

Inorganic Compounds

  • Apatite

Organic Compounds

  • Guano Hills

Human Interference

Humans interfere with the phosphorus cycle in one main way, and that way is fertilizer. When people use fertilizers in crops it goes into the water through runoff, and that creates eutrofication which is the excess growth of plants.

Credits:

Created with images by RitaE - "sunflower sunflower field bouquet"

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