The Legislative Branch
The Legislative Branch is the branch that writes the actual laws. The bad part is that the other branches can reject that law if it is a bad law or just unconstitutional. What that means is that if the law is something the declaration says we won't have for a law and then we have it.
The Judicial Branch
The Judicial Branch is the branch that judges the law. What that means is that they can say no to the law but only if it unconstitutional or if they just think that is just a stupid law and it makes it past the Executive Branch.
The Judicial Branch is made up the Supreme Court. But you don't technically have to go to college but you do have to be a judge so you do. There are usually 9 judges in the Supreme Court but one of the judges past away last year and still hasn't got replaced.
Federalism is very important for small states because small states have say in the government. Vermont only has two senetors, which is the same as every single state, even though the other states are a lot bigger. The idea of federalism is the states government is just as the countries government.
How The President Gets Elected
How the president gets elected is very complicated, but once you understand the process it is a little bit easier. The president is not elected by the people, but by the electoral votes. Every state gets to choose a state electors for their state. The number of state electoral votes is equal to the amount of senators and representatives of that state combined. The senators have to agree on which candidate they will vote for. The candidate with the most electoral votes win.