The midnight appointments were papers left by John Adams at the last moments of his term, for President Jefferson. These papers were to appoint new judges to the court, but Jefferson didn't like these judges because they were federalists, so he asked his secratary of state James madison to "lose" them. After "losing" them Marbury one who was to be appointed as a judge sued Madison for not giving him his commission, this led to the case Marbury vs. Madison.
Marbury vs. Madison
This court case is what allowed the Supreme court to rule if something would be constitutional or not. After not getting his commission to become judge Marbury sued. The court found that he had the right to the office, but they couldn't do anything about it. John Marshall, the Chief Justice found that the Judiciary act of 1789 was unconstitutional. This led to the judicial review, which allowed the court to rule if something was unconstitutional or not.
This purchase was made in 1803 by Thomas Jefferson. The first deal was we would give France 9 million if they gave us what is today Louisiana. The French said that they would give us everything from Louisiana up to Montana for just 15 million. Jefferson said he couldn't accept this because nothing in the constitution said he could, so he decided to call it a treaty instead. After renaming it, Jefferson asked the House of Representatves for the money, and the Senate to approve the treaty, they both agreed and we got the land.
Lewis and Clark
After the Louisiana purchase Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark, and others to explore the new land from 1804 to 1806 and found many new creatures. They started from Independence Missouri and ended in Fort Clatsop Oregon. They traveled west then went north then went west again in an effort to discover the famed Northwest Passage. They did however blaze a trail from Independence, MO to the Pacific Ocean.
Zebulon Pike's Expedition
Zebulon Pike was also commissioned by Jefferson to explore the new land as well. Pike decided that he would head straight west rather than head north. He explored the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains. He also had the mountain Pikes Peak named after him. Although he discovered a lot of new land he made some errors and ended up in the Spanish territory of Colorado. He was captured by the Spanish but was later released with the promise of never to return. His report, prompted many to believe the sparsely settled western lands would one day become part of the United States.
Impressment is the capture of enemy ship and forcing them into your own navy the British used this technique a lot due to there lack of sailors in their navy
Leopard vs Chesapeake
This was a naval battle between a British ship and american ship. The British were looking deserters on the Chesapeake, and boarded the ship. After much fighting between the crews the Chesapeake surrendered, and four US sailors were taken away, 3 killed and 8 critically injured.. This conflict angered many and forced Congress and Jefferson to create the Embargo act of 1807.
Embargo Act of 1807
The Embargo Act of 1807 was created to damage the British and French economies. This was created in response to the Leopard and Chesapeake battle that took place a little while ago. The Embargo wasn't well liked by many northerners, so many became angry at the Federal Government. At the end of Jeffersons presidency Jefferson replaced the Embargo with the Non-intercourse Act
This act like the previous one was meant to damage the economy of the British, it backfired. This act was meant to replace the Embargo act of 1807, but it like the last one made the American economy weak, causing more resentment among americans. This act only furthered the coming War of 1812.