Presidential notes By emma mathew

George Washington: 1st President

George Washington's character was described as an honest, intelligent, and steady leader.

Executive branch- President’s Cabinet included men who had a past experience that made him a wise choice to advice the first national president. Cabinet meetings started in 1792, where Washington’s cabinet members discussed political matters and debated over important issues.

The Judiciary Act of 1789- This act made three levels of federal courts and their powers and relationship to state courts.

French Revolution, 1719- tHe french was fighting among their king.The french won and Created their republican goverment.

Whiskey Rebellion- started when Congress passed a tax on American made whiskey on March 1791. The tax was created by Hamilton to help pay federal debt, and to test the strengths of the federal government. The western Pennsylvanians soon got even more angry with the federal government. They lashed out, and Washington led an army of 13,000 men to fight against the rebellion in November 1794, but all the rebels ran away without a fight.

Neutral as Foreign Policy- This policy states that the U.S will not take sides with European countries at war.

Jay Treaty- treaty that Settled disputes between the U.S and Britain dating back in the early 1790s.

Farewell Address- George Washington was tired of public life and wanted to retire. With the help of Hamilton and Madison, he wrote his Farewell Address, and he warned about the dangers of foreign ties and political conflicts in their country.

John Adams: 2nd President

John Adams: Federalist. VP was Jefferson. Democratic Republican.

Alien and Sedition Acts-Laws were passed to protect the US. The federalists did it to crush opposition to war.

The election of 1800 led to 12th Admenment-The twelfth amendment allowed electors to vote for a president and vice president, instead of voting for two presidents.

Foreign Policy: XYZ Affair-Adams has to follow Washington’s footsteps, and has to work hard to gain the trust of the people.

Marbury vs Madison- The exercise of judicial review

Thomas Jefferson: 3nd President

THOmas Jefferson- Jefferson's goal was he wanted to limit the power of government and the protection of civil liberties. He wanted to end the state dept And also had 16 federal judgeships that he filled with federalist the night before he left office.

Election 1800- Jefferson was affected during the ELECTION. He was nervous because Jefferson got 73 votes and so did his opponent. Many Federalists saw Jefferson as their principal foe, whose election was to be avoided at all costs. But Alexander Hamilton, a well-respected Federalist party leader, hated Burr and advised Federalists in Congress that Jefferson was the safer choice. Finally, on February 17, 1801, on the thirty-sixth ballot, the House elected Thomas Jefferson to be President.the 12th Amendment corrected these problems by providing for separate Electoral College votes for President and Vice President.

Marbury vs Madison- John Adams had appointed William Marbury to be a justice of peace Adams had signed marbury's commission but it was never delivered.marbury sued to force Madison to give him the Commission.

The Lewis and Clark Expedition- In 1803 the president asked congress to fund an expedition to explore the west. to lead, he chose Meriwether Lewis and co leader was William Clark on 1804. the Lewis and Clark expedition began on the journey to explore the Louisiana purchase.they meet Sacagawea which helped the expedition by naming plants and by gathering edible fruits and vegetables for the group and her brother provided them with horses and lead them through the mountains.zebulon pike was sent on another mission to the west. he was ordered to find the starting point of the red river because the United States believed it was Louisiana territory.

Foreign Policy-Embargo means the banning of trade.They were going to end the trade with britain.In the late 1807 congress passed the Embargo Act.The law was supposed to banned trade with all foreign countries

Lousiana Purchase

Farmers: New Orleans was important to farmers in the early 1800s because of its busy docks filled with settlers’ farm products, and furs from the Native Americans, which were mostly shipped to Europe. The Mississippi River was important because settlers can move their products to eastern markets.

Napoleon’s Plan: Napoleon wanted to rebuild France’s empire in North America after receiving Louisiana from the Spanish. This alarmed American farmers because the Spanish closed American shipping in New Orleans just before handing Louisiana over to the French.

April 30, 1803: This concluded negotiations between the French and Americans over the Louisiana Purchase. A formal treaty was signed that day. Napoleon agreed on the sale because it was too expensive to hold that much land, and he need the $15 million for a war between the French and English.


-It doubled the size of the US

-The purchase was cheap, and it drove the French out


-It was expensive to have such a big amount of land

-It pushed the Natives all the way back to the west

James Madison: 4th President

James Madison: Republican



September, 1813: The British are defeated by Captain Perry and his troops at the Battle of Lake Eerie.

August, 1814: Peace negotiations begin in Ghent

December, 1814: Agreements on the treaty of Ghent.

January, 1815: The Battle of New Orleans ​made Andrew ​​ Jackson a hero and was the last major conflict of the War of 1812. ​

The treaty of Ghent: British and Americans agree on terms of treaty and return to their status before the war and was a peace treaty the ended the War of 1812 between the US and UK.

War result: The war resulted in the creation of the Canadian border, the end of British influence on the northwest Indians, and the demise of the federalist party because of their beliefs in anti-war

Marbury vs Madison: Case that helped establish the Supreme Court’s power to check the power of the other branches of the government.

James Monroe: 5th President

James Monroe: RepuBlican

U.S gains Florida: They were fighting over the southern border of the spanish land. At that time, florida was unclaimed. Later the troops came over captured seminole.

Monroe Doctrine: Statement on American policy that warned the European powers not to interfere with the Americas.

Henry Clay and Missouri Compromise: Henry Clay suggested Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. The Missouri compromise was accepted in 1820.

Erie Canal: This canal goes from Albany to Buffalo, New york. It was significant because it connected Lake Erie and the Great Lakes system to the Hudson River, and thereby gave the western states direct access to the Atlantic Ocean without shipping goods downstream on the Mississippi River to New Orleans.

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