Elizabethan Theater Julie Hansen P.6 Elizabethan Theatre was a revolutionary art that helped amazingly talented people do what they love and showcased plays that impacted drama and literature today.

"The Globe as cosmos; we know there was a trap for evil to come out...and heavens therefore are needed to complement it. Alberti's commentary on Vitruvius, on the other hand, recommends the use of a temporary "Cieling to the Theatre, both to keep off the Weather, and to retain the Voice," and it is likely that the canopy or "shadow" built by the Elizabethans over amphitheater stages had a similar dual function." Much like the Globe, Elizabethan theatres had trap doors for characters to pop out of nowhere or "descend" from "heaven" or "hell". Things like this were soon improved upon and now have led to the special effects we use in movies today. Without this and special effects in today's movies, drama would be very bland and unappealing.

"Dr Jerzy Limon is a happy man...a planned meeting with Prince Charles had to be cancelled...on arrival back home in Gdansk, where he is a professor of English, a letter was waiting on his desk from St James's Palace informing him that the prince had agreed to become patron of the project that is his greatest ambition: the reconstruction, as a new theatrical centre, of an Elizabethan theatre first built in Gdansk." Elizabethan theatres are starting to be rebuilt because they are so far-reaching and important to everything we know about drama, movies, and literature today. People know this and appreciate what they've brought and done. Even so that the prince of London himself agreed to help in the reconstruction of one of these exquisite theatres.

"Elizabeth I (1533-1603) was queen of England from 1558 until her death in 1603. Her reign is often called the Golden Age or the Elizabethan Age because it was a time of great achievement in England." One of these great achievements, though not as important as avoiding war with Europe's leading Roman Catholic nations or succeeding in furthering England's interests despite foreign threats and religious unrest at home, her reign and success as queen allowed prosperity for scholars, musicians, and writers. Elizabethan theatre was one of the many things that prospered during this time, enough so that Queen Elizabeth I came to the theatres herself to see the plays performed there, which was unheard of compared to the theatre coming to her. Without such a strong and clever ruler there may not have even been theatres at all; literature would not be as we know it today and drama and movies might not even exist.

"James Burbage built the first permanent theater in England. He called it the Theatre. Up to that time, touring acting companies had played wherever they could rent space." If theatres had not been built, plays and acting would most likely have died out, and if not they would certainly not be what we know today. Movies may not exist and drama would be different from what it is now.

"Since his death Shakespeare's plays have been almost continually performed, in non-English-speaking nations as well as those where English is the native tongue; they are quoted more than the works of any other single author." Shakespeare was the man who wrote some of the most famous and influential plays of all time, and it was all performed in Elizabethan theatre. Even though Shakespeare refers to "the wooden O" being the place where most of his plays were performed, the wooden O was really just a variation of Elizabethan theatre, as well as the Globe theatres, the Red Lion theatres, the Swan theatres, and others. Drama, literature, and movies would not be what they are today if they would even exist at all without Elizabethan theatre.

Alleyn, Edward (1566-1626), was one if the leading actors in the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods in England. This was one actor who was brought into the spotlight by plays held in Elizabethan theatres. He was even successful enough to remain popular in the Jacobean age as well as the Elizabethan age. If Elizabethan theatres hadn't existed, Edward Alleyn would not have had the chance to become as popular and successful as he was in those days.

"Heywood, Thomas (1574?-1641), was a popular and productive English playwright of the Elizabethan and Jacobean ages. He claimed he wrote all or part of 220 plays, of which perhaps 23 survive." Heywood wrote several of the plays that were performed in Elizabethan theatres and many of them were very successful, even to this day. Like Edward Alleyn, he also was auspicious enough to last in the Jacobean age as well. If there was no Elizabethan theatres, Heywood would not have written these plays that influenced literature today, and if he still had he would not have been able to do with anything with them.

"James Burbage...built the first theater in England, just outside the City of London, in 1576. It was an enormous success and was quickly copied. By the time he built The Theatre, he had been an important actor for many years...Richard Burbage...James's son, was born in London. He acted in the same company as the famous playwright William Shakespeare. Burbage was a powerful tragic actor, and the parts he played included Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear. He also acted in plays by Ben Jonson." If James Burbage had not built the first theatre it would not have led to movies and what drama and literature are today. Richard Burbage also would not have had such a great career in acting. Richard Burbage was admired and prosperous enough to perform in Shakespeare's most famous and popular plays as well as other plays by Ben Jonson.

"The story of Romeo and Juliet has inspired a number of other artistic works...the play has also been filmed several times." Shakespeare wrote this play in the Elizabethan era and it was first performed in Elizabethan theatre. This play would not have been so influential and imbedded into literature and culture if there had been no theatre to write it for. It also would not have been performed in other theatres, and eventually in movies and other variations of the play.

"The Triumphs of Truth, which celebrated Thomas Myddelton's appointment as Lord Mayor, was the most elaborate and expensive inaugural mayoral pageant of the early modern period." This play was the best and most popular play at the time it was written and performed. It's main idea was that zeal could overcome envy, and is an idea that people probably liked and wanted more of. This idea is in lots of stories and movies today.

"The two Tamburlaine spectacles introduced to the English stage an epic hero whose exploits are presented through the medium of a sparkling blank verse that raised dramatic poetry to new heights...Elizabethans, used to didactic plays, reacted enthusiastically to Marlowe’s tragic spectacle and its sequel." These two plays of the same story portrayed what most people think of when they hear the word "hero" - someone who's hard-core and has an amazing journey and does such a heroic deed that he becomes a legend. This idea has lasted until this day with characters like Luke Skywalker, Harry Potter, Super Mario, and many others. This kind of thing has also led to "The Hero's Journey", where hundreds of stories follow the same pattern and style because that is what people want, and it is what they have wanted since Tamburlaine thanks to Elizabethan theatre.

"With the other tragedies King Lear, Macbeth, and Othello, Hamlet stands out among Shakespeare's finest work and is regarded by many as his greatest play and one of the world's great dramas." Hamlet was one of Shakespeare's most famous and favored plays ever written, inspiring and influencing many books and movies we know today. This play may not even exist without Elizabethan theatres and would not be as well-known as it is now.

SOURCES

“Alleyn, Edward.” World Book Advanced. World Book, 2016. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.

Anderson, Robert. “Shakespeare and His Theater: A Perfect Match.” Holt Literature & Language Arts: Mastering the California Standards: Reading, Writing, Listening, Speaking, by G. Kylene Beers et al., Austin, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 2003, pp. 778-80.

---. “William Shakespeare’s Life: A Genius from Stratford.” Holt Literature & Language Arts: Mastering the California Standards: Reading, Writing, Listening, Speaking, by G. Kylene Beers et al., Austin, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 2003, pp. 776-77.

“’Burbage.’ World Book Advanced. World Book, 2016. Web. 23 Nov. 2016.” “Burbage.” World Book Advanced. World Book, 2016. Web. 23 Nov. 2016. “Burbage.” World Book Advanced. World Book, 2016. Web. 23 Nov. 2016.

“Christopher Marlowe.” Strauss, Gerald H. “Christopher Marlowe.” Magill’s Literary Annual 2007. Ed. John D. Wilson and Steven G. Kellman. Hackensack: Salem, 2007. n. pag. Salem Online. Web. 19 Nov. 2016. Strauss, Gerald H. “Christopher Marlowe.” Magill’s Literary Annual 2007. Ed. John D. Wilson and Steven G. Kellman. Hackensack: Salem, 2007. n. pag. Salem Online. Web. 19 Nov. 2016.

“Elizabeth 1.” Gibbs, Gary G. “Elizabeth I.” World Book Advanced. World Book, 2016. Web. 20 Nov. 2016. Gibbs, Gary G. “Elizabeth I.” World Book Advanced. World Book, 2016. Web. 20 Nov. 2016.

“Good Fortune for Gdansk.” Bar-Hillel, Mira. “Good Fortune For Gdansk.” History Today 41.2 (1991): 3. History Reference Center. Web. 19 Nov. 2016. Bar-Hillel, Mira. “Good Fortune For Gdansk.” History Today 41.2 (1991): 3. History Reference Center. Web. 19 Nov. 2016.

“Hamlet.” “Hamlet.” World Book Advanced. World Book, 2016. Web. 20 Nov. 2016. “Hamlet.” World Book Advanced. World Book, 2016. Web. 20 Nov. 2016.

“Heywood, Thomas.” Seidel, Michael. “Heywood, Thomas.” World Book Advanced. World Book, 2016. Web. 19 Nov. 2016. Seidel, Michael. “Heywood, Thomas.” World Book Advanced. World Book, 2016. Web. 19 Nov. 2016.

“’How Many Arts from Such a Labour Flow’: Thomas Middleton and London’s New River.” Kok, Su Mei. “How Many Arts From Such A Labour Flow”: Thomas Middleton And London’s New River.“ Journal Of Medieval & Early Modern Studies 43.1 (2013): 173-190. History Reference Center. Web. 22 Nov. 2016. Kok, Su Mei. “How Many Arts From Such A Labour Flow”: Thomas Middleton And London’s New River.“ Journal Of Medieval & Early Modern Studies 43.1 (2013): 173-190. History Reference Center. Web. 22 Nov. 2016.

Mann, David. “Heywood’s Silver Age: A Flight Too Far?.” Medieval & Renaissance Drama In England 26.(2013): 184-203. History Reference Center. Web. 18 Nov. 2016.

“Romeo and Juliet.” Seidel, Michael. “Romeo and Juliet.” World Book Advanced. World Book, 2016. Web. 20 Nov. 2016. Seidel, Michael. “Romeo and Juliet.” World Book Advanced. World Book, 2016. Web. 20 Nov. 2016.

“Titus Andronicus.” “Titus Andronicus.” World Book Advanced. World Book, 2016. Web. 19 Nov. 2016. “Titus Andronicus.” World Book Advanced. World Book, 2016. Web. 19 Nov. 2016.

“William Shakespeare.” “William Shakespeare.” Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition (2016): 1-4. History Reference Center. Web. 19 Nov. 2016. “William Shakespeare.” Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition (2016): 1-4. History Reference Center. Web. 19 Nov. 2016.

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Created with images by Winniepix - "London's famous Globe Theatre, viewed from the River Thames" • tpsdave - "pitman theatre theater sign" • tonynetone - "William Shakespeare" • SPakhrin - "Shakespeare Globe"

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