The Endomembrane System By: Matt Bates

The Nucleus

  • Made up of nuclear membranes and the nucleolus
  • Holds and protects the DNA
  • Where DNA is replicated and where transcription takes place
  • All eukaryotic cells have nuclei
  • Some cells have more than one nucleus
  • Emery-Dreifuss is a disease where skeletal and cardiac muscles are weakened


  • Made of rRNA
  • Creates proteins through tranlation
  • All cells contain ribosomes
  • Located all over the cell
  • Can be found attached to the Rough ER
  • A disease associated with ribosomes is Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA)
  • In DBA, the bone marrow is unable to produce enough red blood cells for the body

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Made of many membranes that are folder over eachother
  • Makes up 50% of the cells surface area
  • Found in eukaryotic cells
  • Usually close to the nucleas
  • Has many proteins attached to the outer surface (Hence Rough ER)
  • Creates and sends proteins to the Golgi Apparatus
  • Diseases can occur when the Rough ER fails to properly fold and create protiens
  • Some diseases include Alzheimers and Parkinson's

Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum

  • Formed from membranes folded over eachother
  • Found in eukaryotic cells
  • Attached to the nucleus and the Rough ER
  • Lacks ribosomes on the surface
  • It's job is to create lipids and send them to the Golgi Apparatus
  • Diseases caused by dysfunctional Smooth ER: diabetes, atherosclerosis, liver disease

Golgi apparatus

  • Made of many flattened membranes called cisternae
  • Found in eukaryotic cells next to the nucleus and the ER
  • Receives proteins and lipids from ER and modifies them
  • Packages them in vesicles and sends them to other places in the cell
  • Achondrogenesis is a disease where the structure of the Golgi Apparatus is altered, which hinders bone and cartilage devolopment


  • Has two membranes, one of which is folded on the inside to create cristae
  • Found in eukarotic cells, in the cytoplasm
  • Muscle cells usually have many mitochondia
  • By aerobic cellular respiration, the mitochondria creates ATP for the cell
  • Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome is a disease caused by a malfunction in the mitochondria where they cannot produce enough ATP for the cell


  • Chloroplasts are made of an inner and outer membrane
  • The inner membrane is folded around grana and stroma
  • Photosynthesis takes place in these organelles
  • Uses carbon dioxide, water, and energy from sunlight to create glucose and oxygen
  • Found in eukaryotic plant cells
  • Tobacco mosaic virus is a virus that can infect plant cells and interact with its chlorplasts


  • Flagellum are made of micro tubules that form a whip-like structure
  • They are used by cells to move around
  • Flagellum can be found in all three domains
  • Many species of bacteria have flagellum to help them move spred throughout the body


  • Cilia is made of many small micro tubules
  • Help push liquids past the cell
  • Found in all three domains
  • Ciliary dyskinesia is a disease that damages the cilia in the airways, so mucus will build up in the throat


  • Made of vesicles filled with digestive enzymes
  • Inside of the lysosomes have a low pH to help digest wastes or foods
  • Its job is to digest large particles of waste and food inside the cell
  • Lysosomes are mainly found in animal cells
  • Prolific in cells in the digestive system to help break down large pieces of food
  • Lysosomal storage disorders are diseases where food or waste is stored in the cell instead of being broken down, which causes a build up in the cell

Food vacuole

  • Made of a membrane, separated from the rest of the cell
  • Stores food until the cell needs it
  • found in most eukaryotic cells
  • Danon's disease is where the vacuole and lysosome slowly fuse together, which is dangerous to muscle cells.

Central Vacuole

  • Made of one membrane and is used to store water
  • Found in plant cells
  • Usually the largest organelle in the cell
  • Can also be used to hold materials and wastes
  • In response to a viral infection, the vacuole in a plant cell can release contents into the cytoplasm, that makes the virus unable to harm the cell


"National Institutes of Health (NIH) | Turning Discovery Into Health." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2016.

"Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough and Smooth)." British Society for Cell Biology. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2016.

"Golgi Apparatus." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2016.

"Chloroplast." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2016.

Harris, Tess. "Structure and Function of Cilia." Structure and Function of Cilia. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2016.

Created By
Matthew Bates

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