Dred Scott Decision
Rodger Taney- was the supreme court justice that declined his case
There was a slave that wanted to be free and he had recently moved to a free state as a slave but he had lived in the south. He wanted to but his freedom, and he fought for his freedom all the way to the supreme court but they declined his case.
The Emancipation Proclamation
Government tried to help but their proclamation was ignored
Was on January 1, 1863 that proclamation was made to free slaves. This did not free a single slave however it was a turning point the war the war it allowed slaves to fight in the civil war if they chose to. The confederant states were the southern states that had all of the slaves and they refused to listen to their president Lincoln because they felt they were there own nation.
The 13th amendment
Even though they were free they weren't treated as if.
was when slavery was officially abolished. The 13th amendment was ratified on December 6, 1865. This stated that all slaves shall be free and if kept it was illegal and would lead to jail.
Every one is always welcome
Was passed by Congress June 13, 1866, and was ratified July 9, 1868, this stated all people born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, meant all people could would be citizens if they born in the USA if they were a slave or not.
When it was first past people were very excited t one able to vote
This was passed march 30, 1870, and it stated that all African American men are allowed to vote but all of the white people were not in favor of that so they established a poll tax so that African American people couldn't afford to vote.
Plessy vs Ferguson
Segregated divided the whole country.
Was when the supreme court ruled that segregation was ok as long as blacks are given equal accommodations as others. This meant that there would be separate water foundations, medical care, and even public school for blacks this took place in 1896.
Brown vs Board of Education
This was good for improving the education or African American children.
Was a case when the supreme court ruled the segregation in public schools was ruled unconstitutional. Which means separate but equal facilities, was unconstitutional. This law made it possible for black and white students to attend school together this was in 1954, but schools did not take immediate action into putting this into motion.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
MLK led the Montgomery bus boycott
In Montgomery, Alabama and other places in the USA, there were separate seats on the bus for black people and white people. One day, Rosa Park, a black woman, refused to give up her seat for a white man. She was arrested and thrown jail. For over a year, African Americans boycotted, or refused to to ride the city buses. Finally, on December 21, 1956, the supreme court declared the segregated bus rules unconstitutional.
The Little Rock Nine
There were nine African American students
In 1957, nine African-Americans were almost denied going to a high school by the Arkansas governor, but president Eisenhower overruled the decision. They were escorted by Marshalls to school every day. This was because there was a lot of bullying and disapproval of those nine students.
Those involved in a sit-in had food and water thrown at them by the rest of the restaurant, but they had to sit there and take other wise they would have diminished the whole purpose of the sit in.
On February 1, 1960 four black college students sat down at one of these lunch counters in Greensboro, North Carolina. The counter was designated for white people only, and the restaurant would not serve them. The student refused to get up. This was there way of protesting segregation. This is a peaceful protest known and was a sit in. Sit ins- were protests where people would not leave a certain location until they were treated fairly or their demands were met.
The school didn't want her to learn, but she perservered
Ruby Bridges was a little black girl that was chosen to attend white school and was escorted them by federal marshals but many kids at the school pulled out, and all of this was going on in New Orleans in the 1960’s. But ruby did graduate high school and college. This was at the very beginning of de segregation of the schools. There was a woman that Ruby met when she became a woman that she knew prior in elementary school and the woman apologized for being mean to Ruby back then.
This is one of the buses that were burned down
In 1961, Freedom Riders were common sight They were protesters who specifically rode buses. They were of many races and all believed that segregation was wrong. They specifically protested against local laws. They did face harm, for some of their buses were set on fire, even though innocent civilians were riding them. The people that would try to harm freedom riders were people that thought segregation should continue or people that believed that what the freedom riders were doing was wrong.
Even some colleges were segregated at this time. James Meredith applied and got accepted to attend the university of Mississippi, but when school officials learned his race, they rejected his application. The supreme court ruled that he could attend, but when he arrived al college, the entrance was blocked. Eventually, he was able to successfully attend and graduate with a degree in political science, but school was a not cooperative at first with the supreme courts decision to allow James Meredith to attend.
I Have A Dream speech
MLK gave the speech at Washington D.C
This speech took place on August 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his famous “I have a dream speech” to a crowd of over 250,000 people. The people had gathered as part a part pf the March on Washington for jobs and freedom he called for us citizens to end racism his speech and the March encouraged the president to pass laws against discrimination.