Civil Rights Terms By: Harrison lane and jerren white

Dred Scott Decision 1857: Dred Scott was a slave who's owner took him to Illinois and Minnesota. He believed that since he was in a free state, he should be free. Chief Justice Roger Taney disagreed and said that Dred Scott was still a slave since he was the property of his owner. He also ruled that slaves would never have American Citizenship since he was a different race.

The Emancipation Proclamtion 1863: Abraham Lincoln passed The Emancipation Proclamation. This said that all slaves were free in only Confederate States. Although Lincoln declared to end slavery, it didn't work.

13th Amendment 1865: While Lincoln was President, he wanted to end slavery everywhere after the Civil War. In order to do this, he needed to make an amendment. 17 out of 36 the states accepted it. This completely banned slavery in 17 states.

14th amendment 1868: The Dred Scott Decision states that no slaves would ever be able to become US Citizens. The 14th amendment said that anyone, no matter what, if they were born in the United States, could be an American Citizen. This helped previous slaves and any other race people.

15th Amendment 1870: The 15th amendment made it illegal to deny another man to vote based on their race.

Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896: This case was taken all the way to Supreme Court. In Plessy vs. Fergusson, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation is okay as long as African Americans are given equal accommodations as others. This means there would still be segregation, but everybody would get the same things. There would still be some things that white people get better. Quality over quantity.

Brown Vs. Board of Education 1954: In this case, Supreme Court ruled that the segregation in public schools, separate but equal facilities. This law made is possible for black and white students to attend school together. Black children still were picked on and bullied but still got to go to school.

The Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955: Rosa Parks was an African American woman refused to get out of her seat for a white man. She got arrested for this. From then on, African American stopped riding the bus for a year.

Little Rock Nine 1957: Supreme Court ruled that segregation was not allowed in school. Even after they said this, still lots of schools didn't let in African Americans. In 1957, nine black students attended a school called Little Rock Central High School. The governor then sent National Guards to try and make school allow them. President Eisenhower overruled his decision of this action.

Sit-ins 1960: Lots of places at this point were still segregated. On February 1, 1960 four black students went to a lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. The counter was for white people only, and the restaurant would not serve them. The students refused to get up. This was their way of protesting segregation. There are places that you can learn how to do a sit-in.

Ruby Bridges 1960: At this time, almost all of schools were segregated. Ruby Bridges was chosen as one of the black students to attend a previously white school. She and her mother were escorted to school by federal marshals. Lots of parents refused for their kids to go to a school with a black girl. Their children's parents made them go to a different school. Ruby ended up graduating high school and college.

Freedom Riders 1961: Some people decided to protest segregation in different ways. Freedom Riders were people who rode buses to segregated areas of the south to protest and challenge the laws. The Freedom Riders were people of all races.

James Meredith 1962: James Meredith applied to the University of Mississippi and was accepted until they found out his race. After, they rejected him. The Supreme Court said that he could attend, but when he arrived at college, the entrance was blocked. Eventually, he was able to successfully attend and graduate with a degree.

“I have a Dream” Speech 1963: The people who went to the speech went for jobs and freedom. The purpose of the speech was to end racism. The speech and march encouraged the president to pass laws against discrimination.

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